JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Preliminary study for the development of a visiting oral health care intervention program for the elderly based on community healthcare

    Jong-Hwa Jang , Ja-Won Cho , Yeo-Ju Kim , Ji-Yun Ki , Kyung-Sook Jo , Ji-Ryang Kim , Jung-Eun Park , Da-Hui Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: We evaluated the level of oral health status and oral health behavior in the elderly prior to their participation in a visiting oral health care intervention program as part of a community healthcare project in Cheonan city, South Korea. Methods: The oral hygiene conditions, oral health behaviors, and oral senility of 64 elderly people subject to community care were measured during the period January 1 to February 15, 2020 using dental health surveys and questionnaire-based interviews conducted in line with World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: The systematic disease retention rate of the elderly in this study was 90.6%, followed by hypertention (70.7%), and diabetes (51.7%). Scores were 1.69 out of 5 for subjective health evaluation, 1.8 out of 5 for subjective awareness of oral health, and the number of natural teeth was 14.9 per person (average mean for elderly people 18.38-19.34). During the day, 94.9% practiced brushing, after dinner 58.9%, and before bedtime 26.8%, which shows a diminished rate of practice. The percentage of participants dissatisfied with dental treatment was high at 67.2%, and the six measures of oral sensitivity, masticatory discomfort, pronunciation discomfort, and tongue pressure, presented less than average scores. Conclusions: The level of oral health and oral health behavior of the elderly prior to the visiting oral health care community intervention program, was very poor. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that there is a need to develop a more systematic and thorough strategy to activate visiting community oral health care intervention programs.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Oral health status depending on the type of national health insurance: the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ)

    Da-Hui Kim , Mi-Hyun Choi , Hye-Jin Lee , Hee-Hong Min , Young-Suk Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze dental caries and periodontal diseases in Korean adults depending on types of national health insurance, using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ). Methods: From 2016 to 2018, the final analysis included a total of 12,601 adults over 19 years of age, who had undergone dental inspections for dental caries and periodontitis, and whose national health insurance was verified. Results: Among all the subjects, the ratio of employees was highest (67.4%), followed by the self-employed (39.4%), and then medical care recipients (3.3%). The prevalence of dental caries and periodontitis was 93.0% and 30.5%, respectively, among all subjects. The former was highest for medical aid recipients (95.9%), followed by employees (93.1%), and was lowest for the self-employed (92.2%) (P<0.001). The latter was highest for medical aid recipients (40.7%), followed by the self-employed (35.9%), and was lowest for employees (27.7%) (P<0.001). The prevalence of dental caries in the self-employed group was significantly lower (0.52 times) than that of medical care recipients (95% CI: 0.28-0.94), while no significant difference was seen between the latter and employees. There were also no significant differences among them, depending on the types of national health insurance and periodontitis. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop oral health promotion programs that are not biased toward specific types of health insurance subscriptions, and to establish a business plan for oral prevention of subscribers of medical benefits.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    The effect of general health status, oral health behavior and status on quality of life in Korea adults

    Ho Jin Jeong , Ye Hwang Kim , Jung Won Yun , Sang Hwan Oh , Hyun Seo Yoon , Min Kyung Lee , Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations between general health status, oral health behavior, oral health status, and quality of life, as well as the mediating effects of oral health behavior and oral health status. Methods: Subjects aged ≥19 years participated in a health questionnaire in the third year of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015). Results: Analysis of the overall path of periodontal disease showed that respiratory and circulatory diseases and oral health behaviors had statistically significant indirect effects on quality of life through the mediation of oral health behavior and oral health conditions, while analysis of the overall trend of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index showed significant indirect effects on quality of life through mediation between oral and oral health conditions. As a result of these analyses, the association of general health status with quality of life, and its effect thereon, were confirmed through the intermediary of oral health behaviors and oral health conditions. Conclusions: Therefore, further research is needed on the relation of general diseases to oral health management. Special oral health departments need to be established in both general and university hospitals, and dental hygienists in charge of oral care need to be deployed to improve oral health for general diseases. Manuals and systems for oral health management and oral health promotion need to be developed for certified dental hygienists in Japan, specifically for each systemic disease. For example, hygienists should have guidance on the oral health practices that help in the prevention of diabetes.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Needs of caregivers for national oral health screening for infants and children

    Sun-Woo Park , Ji-A Park , Jae-Young Lee , Gyorin Lee , Bo-Hyoung Jin

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the perception and needs of the caregivers of infants and children regarding oral health screening in order to identify the problems and the improvements required to increase their satisfaction with the oral health screening system. Methods: An online self-reported survey for the national oral health screening system was conducted for 200 parents raising infants and children in Seoul and the metropolitan area of Korea. The questionnaire for caregivers recorded their thoughts on the current problems, the improvements required in oral health screening, the necessity of screening, and the need for oral h ealth education. Results: The caregivers proposed many requests for precise examination and detailed explanation in the infants and children’s oral health screening and inclusion of simple preventive treatment measures during the screening. Although most parents (94.9%) recognized the necessity of oral checkups for their children, only 76.1% went ahead with the screening. The main reason for screening was prevention and early detection of dental caries. Regarding the need for education, the proportion of respondents receiving oral health education (43.1%) was lower than that of oral health screening (76.1%), even if oral health education and counseling were provided during the screening. The caregivers wanted to learn about the correct tooth brushing methods, causes and prevention of tooth decay, fluoride application, and preferred education methods such as hands-on training, education by dental experts, or visualization. Conclusions: Understanding the perception and needs of caregivers regarding the infants and children’s oral health screening would contribute to improvements in the oral health screening system, thereby increasing their satisfaction.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Caries activity test by realtime PCR method and bacterial cultural method

    Joung-Hee Yun , Ji-Hyeon Park , Ja-Won Cho , Sung-Won Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to compare the results of conventional methodology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for acid-producing bacteria and identify the appropriate method for caries activity testing. Methods: Oral examination and caries activity tests, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, were conducted on 33 middle school students in Cheongju, South Korea. Pearson correlation analysis was subsequently performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using the CRT® Bacteria test was highly correlated with the decayed teeth (DT) index (R=0.570, P<0.05); decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (R=0.376, P<0.05); and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.395, P<0.05). The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using real-time PCR was significantly associated with the DT index (R=0.528, P<0.05), DMFT index (R=0.369, P<0.05), and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.426, P =0.013). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the amount and the type of bacteria between the CRT® Bacteria test and real-time PCR; therefore, these tests were found to be more appropriate to determine caries activity than the modified Snyder test. This study suggests that realtime PCR is a better technique for detecting caries activities than conventional techniques, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, because it is easy to use and provides accurate results.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    The relationship between metabolic syndrome components and the number of remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the number of present teeth in a Korean adult population. Methods: We analyzed the effect of the components of metabolic syndrome in adults aged older than 45 years on the number of present teeth using raw data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2013-2015). For the data analysis, complex samples multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed by correcting the disturbance variables as demographic and socioeconomic variables (gender, age, education level, household income, residential area, family type, and economic activity) and oral health-related behavioral variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing frequency, interdental tooth brushing, flossing, and dental checkups). Results: On analyzing the association between the effects of metabolic syndrome components on less than 20 present teeth by adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables and correcting for both general characteristics and oral health-related behavioral variables, the risk of having less than 20 present teeth was 1.25 times (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.46) higher in the high fasting glucose group compared to that in the non-high fasting glucose group. Metabolic syndrome composed of three or more components was significantly associated with less than 20 present teeth. Conclusions: It is necessary to continuously educate Korean adults about oral health behavior. Appropriate interventional programs to prevent oral disease should be provided when patients with metabolic syndrome visit dental clinics and public health centers.

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  • Original Article 2020-03-30

    Effects of some commercial calamansi-containing beverages on the enamel surface

    Eun-kyoung Kim, Hae-Ryoung Park, Kyung-Yi Chung, Choong-Ho Choi, Seong-Soog Jeong

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some commercial calamansi-containing beverages on the sound surface of bovine teeth as well as the dental erosion inhibitory effects of calcium. Methods: The pH and titratable acidity of six kinds of commercially available calamansi beverages were determined. Further, 3% calcium was added to the calamansi beverage Oranssi in the experimental group to confirm its dental erosion inhibitory effect. Jeju Samdasoo was used in the negative control group and Coca-Cola in the positive control group. After immersing the sound teeth specimens for 10 min, surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers hardness number (VHN), and surface changes in specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Results: The average pH of the commercial calamansi beverages was 2.54±0.22. After 10 min of treatment with each experimental beverage, the surface hardness difference (ΔVHN) was highest in the Coca-Cola group (―49.05±12.59), followed by the Oranssi calamansi group (―43.77±13.70), 3% calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group (―2.71±12.58), and Samdasoo group (14.03±20.79). There was no significant difference between the bottled water and calcium-added Oranssi calamansi groups or between the Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the surface hardness between the bottled water and Coca-Cola groups (P

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Risk factors related to periodontal health of adolescents

    Ji-Soo Kim , Se-Yeon Kim , Min-Ji Byon , Eun-Joo Jun , Seung-Hwa Jeong , Jin-Bom Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors related to periodontal health in middle school and high school adolescents. Methods: This study was conducted using data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2013-2015). Among the 22,948 participants in the Sixth KNHANES, 1,222 participants (aged 12-18 years) who completed the systemic and oral health examinations and questionnaires were included in this study. Independent variables related to demographic socioeconomic status and oral health-related behaviors were the following: age, gender, household income, frequency of daily toothbrushing, smoking, alcohol drinking, annual dental visit, and periodontal treatment. The dependent variables were the prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus.. Results: Among the total participants, 34.1% were diagnosed with prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus, and periodontal health was found to be at its worst at 17 years of age (41.6% of participants). Moreover, household income, alcohol drinking, annual dental visits, and frequency of daily toothbrushing were related to prevalence and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus by alcohol consumption, toothbrushing less than twice per day, and number of DMFT were 5.00 (95% CI: 2.24- 11.18), 2.21 (95% CI: 1.21-4.04), and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.17), respectively. Conclusions: To prevent periodontal disease among adolescents, it is necessary to improve oral health-related behavior and its associated factors and continuous oral health education.

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  • Original Article 2020-03-30

    Antibacterial effect of different concentrations of Galla Chinensis extract on cariogenic bacteria in a biofilm model

    Eun-Jeong Kim, Bo-Hyoung Jin

    Abstract : Objectives: Galla Chinensis inhibited the adherence of planktonic oral bacteria and acid production by cariogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the relevant conditions of Galla Chinensis extract (GCE) exposure time and concentration and the effect of GCE on the structural and functional activity of cariogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effects of natural G. Chinensis extract on S. mutans, S. sanguinis, and S. oralis biofilms were evaluated in vitro. Methods: Biofilms formed on glass surfaces were treated with different concentrations of GCE at different exposure times. The effects were assessed by examining the bactericidal activity, acidogenesis, minimum inhibitory concentration, and morphology. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the bacterial growth inhibition depending on the concentration of the GCE, with bacterial growth being inhibited as the concentration of GCE increased. A concentration of 1.0 mg/ml GCE had similar bactericidal effects against S. mutans and S. oralis biofilms to those produced by 2.0 mg/ml CHX. In the 1.0 mg/ml GCE group, incomplete septa were also observed in the outline of the cell wall, together with disruption of the cell membrane. In addition, there was also a slight exudation of the intracellular content from the bacteria in the 1.0 mg/ml GCE and 2 mg/ml CHX groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that GCE inhibits the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, and S. oralis with increasing concentrations. It alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilms. These results suggest that GCE might be a useful anti-bacterial agent for preventing dental caries.

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  • Original Article 2020-03-30

    Oral health condition according to distribution of periodontopathic bacterial complex

    Ji-Hye Kim, Dong-Ik Lee, Sang-Uk Im, Eun-Suk Jeon, Keun-Bae Song, Youn-Hee Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the distribution of periodontopathic bacteria and oral conditions. Methods: Stimulated saliva was collected from 162 adults aged 60 years and above. The prevalence and amount of periodontopathic bacteria in the saliva were analyzed using real-time PCR. Pocket depth and clinical attachment loss were examined to evaluate the oral conditions of the subjects. Patients who had at least one tooth surface involved, with a pocket depth ≥4 mm or clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm were classified as having periodontal disease. Results: The detection rates of most bacteria in the orange and green complexes were more than 90%, while those of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia in the red complex were 58.6% and 61.7%, respectively. The number of bacteria in the red complex positively correlated with each other. There were no significant differences in the number of types of red complex bacteria in the saliva and the distribution of residual number of teeth and periodontal disease (P>0.05). On the other hand, the number of remaining teeth in subjects with higher bacterial density were more than those with lesser bacterial density. In addition, the occurrence of dental disease differed significantly depending on the number of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. Conclusions: The relative amount of periodontopathic bacteria is important in the occurrence of periodontal disease, and the number of these bacteria positively correlated with each other.

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March, 2021
Vol.45 No.1

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784