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Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial effect of mastic oil on a representative caries-inducing bacterium, Streptococcus mutans.Methods: S. mutans UA159 was maintained in a BHI medium containing 0.1% sugar at 37℃ and 10% CO2. Strains were treated with six different concentrations of mastic oil (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%). After incubation for 16 h, the antibacterial effect was evaluated by measuring the optical density (OD) and observing the colony-forming unit. A microtiter plate assay was performed to analyze the anti-adhesion ability of mastic oil on S. mutans.Results: More than 0.1% of mastic oil inhibited the growth of S. mutans. In addition, 0.4% mastic oil exterminated S. mutans. Mastic oil induced an anti-adhesive ability in S. mutans.Conclusions: These results suggest that mastic oil may be used as a preventive measure against dental caries.
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Abstract : Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the preventive and protective effects of new dentifrice containing dental type silica, tocopheryl acetate, fluorides, and sodium pyrophosphate on the mineral density of teeth and demineralization of tooth surfaces.Methods: A total of 119 bovine teeth pre-treated with the new dentifrice at three different concentrations for the experiment were randomly allocated into two control (DW and PW) and one experimental (EC) groups. The enamel surface of all bovine teeth were demineralized using an artificial demineralization solution. The dentifrice was diluted with distilled water (DW) at 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 ratios. The samples were treated with the demineralization solution for 4 h after treatment with the supernatants of each diluted dentifrice for 30 min, and this procedure was repeated 3 times over a period of 24 h. The samples were examined using micro-CT to determine the amount of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) comparing the control and experimental dentifrices. The surface changes of the samples were also examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Results: The average BMD of the bovine enamel surface between the treated and non-treated area with the dimineralization solution was significantly different in the control, DW, PW 1:1, PW 1:2, and PW 1:3 groups. However, there was no significant difference observed in the experimental groups, including EC 1:1, EC 1:2, and EC 1:3. The average BMD of the dimineralized surfaces based on the results of the 7 groups was significantly higher in every EC group when compared to the DW and three PW groups.Conclusions: The new dentifrice containing dental type silica, tocopheryl acetate, fluorides, and sodium pyrophosphate is effective in inhibiting the decrease in BMD and demineralization of enamel surface, which was observed when the new dentifrice and demineralization solution was repeatedly applied to the samples for 24 h.
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Abstract : Objectives: One of the main causes of tooth loss in Korea is dental caries, a chronic disease affecting individuals of all ages worldwide. The average decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, a measure of the caries experience of the population, has been stagnating in Korea for a number of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of caries prevalence by tooth type, and to identify the characteristics and risk factors of the specific affected caries (SaC) and significant caries (SiC) groups in Korea’s 12-year-old children. Data were obtained from the 2018 Children’s Oral Health Survey.Methods: Data from a total of 22,303 subjects were included in the study. We grouped the data according to two DMFT-related indices, the SaC index, which includes all subjects who have experienced a carious lesion, and the SiC index, which includes the top one-third of the population by DMFT. We then analyzed the sociodemographic variables and oral health behaviors seen in these groups.Results: The average DMFT index for all the 12-year-old children was 1.89, and that of those in the SaC and SiC groups was 3.37 and 4.86, respectively. The teeth that were found to be most likely to develop caries were the mandibular and maxillary first molars, and the tooth associated with the highest mean DMFT index was the mandibular first premolar. Among the variables analyzed, perceived oral health status was the most influential variable in the SaC and SiC groups, followed by gender, and then the presence or absence of calculus. Household income was not a statistically significant variable.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed the characteristics common to 12-year-old children who are vulnerable to caries. This will provide valuable information when planning dental disease management projects.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of preventing dental erosion caused by fermented milk in early carious teeth by applying 0.2% sodium fluoride to the tooth surface and adding 0.5% calcium to the drink.Methods: We selected the experimental drink Yakult, which is the best-selling domestic fermented milk drink. A total of five groups were selected as experimental groups (mineral water, fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+(fermented milk+0.5% Ca), and 0.2% NaF+Distilled water groups). After forming the artificial early caries, the pH cycling was administered for five days to derive surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image results.Results: When comparing the surface microhardness before and after treatment in each group, significant differences were found among the four groups (P0.05). A comparison of the difference in surface microhardness before and after pH cycling among the groups revealed a significant difference (P0.05). The 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups showed significant differences from the other groups (P0.05) showed smoother surfaces than the 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups.Conclusions: Based on these results, it was confirmed that if 0.5% calcium was included in the fermented milk along with the fluoride mouth rinsing program in schools using 0.2% fluoride every week when drinking fermented milk, it is possible to effectively prevent dental erosion even in early carious teeth.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of permanent first molar taurodontism and identify the correlation between primary molars and permanent first molar taurodontism.Methods: Among the 10,113 children who underwent panoramic radiography at a dental hospital from January 2010 to December 2019, 685 children (404 boys, 281 girls) were included in this study.Results: Six children (0.8%) and 98 children (14.1%) showed taurodontism of the primary molars and permanent first molar, respectively. All of the children with taurodontism in the primary molars had at least one taurodontism in the permanent first molars.Conclusions: Early diagnosis of taurodontism in primary molars might allow dentists to make treatment plans in accordance with tooth development.
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Abstract : Objectives: In this study, I aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of bile acids on the inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells activated through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.Methods: Myelomonocytic RAW 264.7 cells were activated through P. gingivalis LPS to induce inflammatory response, and were treated with three bile acids, including taurodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and glycocholate at different concentrations. The cytotoxicity of bile acids was assessed through the MTT assay. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of bile acids on inflammatory response, the induction levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using ELISA 12 h after the treatment. Additionally, after activating the cells with RANKL to promote osteoclastogenesis, we examined whether bile acids suppressed osteoclast differentiation using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining.Results: In the cell viability test, taurodeoxycholate and taurocholate did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations equal to or less than 200 µM, and glycocholate was non-cytotoxic until the maximal concentration (4,000 µM). All the three bile acids exhibited an inhibitory effect on inflammatory response, as the production levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased with an increase in the concentration of the three bile acids in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of IL-6 reduced remarkably upon treatment with taurodeoxycholate and glycocholate (P<0.001), while the expression of TNF-α decreased slightly upon treatment with glycocholate (P<0.05). Moreover, only glycocholate at a concentration of 1,000 µM suppressed osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.001), while taurodeoxycholate and taurocholate did not exhibit an inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis.Conclusions: Here, I showed that all the three bile acids (taurodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and glycocholate) inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammatory response, and glycocholate partially suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells.
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Abstract : Objectives: To investigate the effect of nicotine on the healing of an oral cavity wound, high and low concentrations of nicotine were administered on human gingival fibroblasts.Methods: Nicotine at concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 mM were administered to gingival fibroblasts to evaluate the survival capability of the cells. Nicotine at 0.1 mM, a nonapoptotic concentration, was administered to evaluate apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide cell staining. Nicotine at 1, 10, and 100 µM were administered to measure the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. FGF was treated with an additional 1, 10, or 100 µM of nicotine to evaluate cell proliferation and wound healing.Results: As the concentration of nicotine increased (0.1, 1, 5, and 10 mM), the survival capability of the cells reduced. When cells were exposed to low nicotine concentration (0.1 mM) for 24 h, apoptosis occurred. Moreover, if the cell was exposed for 48 h, cell apoptosis occurred with necrosis. As the concentration of nicotine increased (1, 10, and 100 µM), more inflammatory cytokines were expressed. When EC LPS and TF LPS were combined with a low concentration of nicotine (1 and 10 mM), the expression of inflammatory cytokines was suppressed. The FGF level decreased as the nicotine concentration increased (1, 10, and 100 µM).Conclusions: Nicotine interferes with the wound healing process of gingival fibroblasts. To maintain the wound healing process after a surgery or dental procedure, cessation of smoking is recommended.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between oral health-related quality of life and adult attachment type among college students.Methods: A total of 557 self-administered questionnaires were collected from undergraduates in Jeonbuk. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. The results were analyzed using t-tests, analyses of variance, Duncan’s multiple range tests, correlation analyses, and multiple regression analyses.Results: The results of this study showed that sex and age were significant factors according to the analysis of the oral health-related quality of life in terms of general characteristics. The variable that had the greatest effect on the oral health-related quality of life was attachment anxiety, followed by age, sex, and attachment avoidance.Conclusions: Education and counseling to promote safety of adult attachment will improve the oral health-related quality of life for college students.
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Abstract : Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related knowledge, attitude, and performance among dental hygienists working in the hospitals. We believe that it is important to develop CPR education programs that would enable dental hygienists to offer accurate and timely aid in emergency situations.Methods: From June 20 to August 20, 2019, 220 dental hygienists at seven selected dental hospitals located in Gwangju Metropolitan City and Jeollanam-do, South Korea were requested to fill a questionnaire as part of a survey.The data regarding the general characteristics, CPR-related characteristics, and CPR-related knowledge, approach, and performance were collected, and analyzed using independent t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and simple regression analysis using the SPSS Windows ver. 25.0.Results: Correlation analysis revealed that high CPR-related knowledge and a more positive approach towards CPR are both associated with high confidence in performing CPR (r=0.37, r=0.415, r=0.605). Furthermore, factors, such as high CPR-related knowledge, positive attitude towards CPR, knowledge regarding the location of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in the hospital, and AED training experience significantly affects the CPR-related performance.Conclusions: Therefore, it is important to develop systematic and beneficial educational programs and provide and update educational material regularly in dental hospitals with an aim to improve CPR-related knowledge and attitude among the dental hygienists.
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Abstract : Objectives: The water fluoridation program in Hapcheon township area has been implemented since 2000. This study aimed to evaluate the caries-preventive effect of water fluoridation on permanent teeth after implementation of an 18-year community water fluoridation program in a suburban area.Methods: A survey was conducted in 2018 with 359 subjects, aged 8, 10, and 12 years, residing in the Hapcheon township area. In this prospective cohort study, the data on caries prevalence obtained from 671 subjects, aged 8, 10, and 12 years, in 2000, when the community water fluoridation program was initiated in the township, were used as a cohort to evaluate the caries-preventive effect after 18 years. The caries-preventive effect of community water fluoridation on permanent teeth was estimated by comparison of the adjusted DMFT scores between the program and the control group, and between the pre- and post-program data after 18 years. The confounding factor, mean number of fissure-sealed teeth, was adjusted to estimate the caries-preventive effect of fluoridation on permanent teeth.Results: Based on the results of the surveys conducted in Hapcheon-eup in 2000 and 2018, the mean number of fissure-sealed permanent teeth was 2.24 in 2000 and 1.38 in 2018. The mean DMFT scores of subjects aged 8, 10, and 12 years in 2018, adjusted for fissure-sealed permanent teeth in the fluoridated area, were significantly lower than those reported by the 2018 Korea National Children’s Oral Health Survey. In addition, the mean values of the adjusted DMFT scores of subjects aged 8, 10, and 12 years in 2018, after the 18-year fluoridation program, were significantly lower than those reported in 2000, the year the fluoridation program was initiated.Conclusions: Community water fluoridation has a high caries-reducing effect; thus, the reintroduction of water fluoridation program is desirable to prevent dental caries.
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Abstract : Objectives: Periodontitis-causing microorganisms and their virulence factors can provoke periodontal destruction in the host. This study was aimed at evaluating the distribution of periodontal disease and its relationship with 11 periodontal disease-causing bacteria in the elderly.Methods: Individuals aged 60 years or above were recruited after obtaining informed consent. The clinical attachment loss was measured at studied sites to determine the severity of periodontitis. Further, the stimulated salivary samples were collected and analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect 11 strains of periodontitis-causing bacteria.Results: The severity of periodontal disease was proportional to the amount of periodontal disease-causing bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis in the red complex increased from 6.60±5.50 in stage 1 to 5.36±5.39 in stage 2 and 7.19±5.56 in stage 3 (P=0.003). Tannerella forsythia increased from 6.54±4.60 in stage 1 to 7.44±4.56 in stage 2 and 8.49±4.70 in stage 3 (P=0.007).Conclusions: The presence of complex bacterial groups and their number of strains were high in participants with severe periodontitis. Controlling periodontitis-related bacteria is important for periodontal health in the elderly.
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Abstract : Objectives: Previous studies have suggested that the lactic acid bacterium, Weissella cibaria CMU has beneficial effects on halitosis, but its precise effects have not been evaluated in human subjects. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of W. cibaria CMU for reducing halitosis in adults (20-70 years old) whose exhibited volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentrations exceeded 0.015 ng/mL and who scored ≥2 points in a halitosis sensory evaluation test.Methods: A total of 60 participants were assigned to an experimental group (treated with W. cibaria CMU) and a control group (placebo). In total, 58 out of 60 participants (experimental group, 29; control group, 29) were ultimately included in gas chromatography (OralChroma) analyses of VSC concentrations and halitosis sensory evaluation tests.Results: We found that the VSC concentration decreased by 0.030±0.062 ng/ml in the experimental group after 8 weeks (P=0.0138) and increased by 0.005±0.124 ng/ml in the control group (P=0.8198). However, the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In a sensory evaluation test, a significantly lower score was obtained for the experimental group than for the control group.Conclusions: Overall, VSC concentrations and sensory evaluation scores were lower in the experimental group than in the control group, but only the latter was statistically significant. Thus, we conclude that W. cibaria CMU is involved in the reduction of halitosis.
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Young-Soon Won, Choong-Ho Choi, Han-Na OH
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Dong-Hyeob Woo, Hae-Young You, Min-Ji Kim, Han-Na Kim, Jin-Bom Kim, Seung-Hwa Jeong
Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health 2013; 37(2): 95-102
Su-Bin Jeong, Eun-Mi Choi, Jun-Seon Choi
Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health 2014; 38(1): 50-58
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