JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2020-03-30

    An exploratory study on development policy and the status of oral health care in the North Korea during the Kim Jong-Un era

    Sae-Rom Lee, Se-Hwan Jung

    Abstract : Objectives: Studies on oral health care in North Korea are being pursued in South Korea. However, the covertness of North Korea offers substantial resistance to the access of information from the country, including in the field of oral health care. In this study, we explored North Korea’s oral health care policy and its status in the Kim Jong-Un Era. Methods: We used existing information from Internet searches and also interviewed three health care professionals who had recently contact with North Korea. Results: At present, there are four development policies of oral health care in North Korea: expansion of dental institutions and resource support, strengthening the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, improvement of dental prosthetics, and increasing the responsibility and role of the dental workforce. In addition, there has been an increasing interest in children’s oral health with the development of a few programs. Conclusions: In order to improve overall oral health care, cooperation is required from North Korea in accessing relevant information in the field of children’s oral health, dental prosthetics, and dental materials. For this to occur, there should be a preliminary trust building process between North Korea and South Korea as well as access to information from reliable sources.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Clinical oral health and adult perceptions of oral health in a dental hospital in Gwangju, Korea

    Byoungjin Lee , Seunghee Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The purposes of the present study were to (1) analyze the relationship between clinical oral health status and subjective oral health status, (2) explore the association between perceived oral symptoms and subjective oral health status, and (3) investigate the effects of factors on subjective oral health status. Methods: A total of 771 subjects, aged over 35 years of age, from a dental hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city, were surveyed cross-sectionally using a self-report questionnaire. We investigated the relationship of subjective oral health status with clinical oral health status, and with perceived oral symptoms using a Chi-squared test (P<0.05). To investigate the effects of factors on subjective oral health status relationship, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The odds ratios of subjective oral health status between ‘Bad’ vs ‘Good’ were as follows: frequent oral concern, 43.41; occasional oral concern, 2.94; toothache, 6.08; hypersensitivity to coldness, 2.13; 1-3 year’s periodic preventive oral care, 0.19; 4-7 and periodic preventive oral care, 0.14. Conclusions: Periodic preventive oral care appears to be associated with self-rated subjective oral health status.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    The financial estimate of dental implant treatment about the National Health Insurance coverage for the Korean young adults

    Jin-Sun Choi , Deuk-Sang Ma

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review the condition of young adults’ teeth loss and dental prostheses and obtain the financial estimate which was needed for National Health Insurance Coverage for Korean young adults’ dental implant treatment. Methods: This study analyzed young adults between 20 years and 29 years old using the data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The KNHANES data were used to generate indicators related to teeth loss and dental prostheses. In addition, this study estimated the financial data of dental implants for young adults by using the number of population covered by National Health Insurance, the number of dental implants insurance fee, and the number of dental teeth loss per person. Results: Korean young adults have 20.4% of tooth loss holders and 2.1% of them require a tooth extraction. Also, dental implant holders were 2.3%. The estimated finance of dental implant treatment for the Korean young adults was confirmed from a minimum of 55.9 billion to a maximum of 233.0 billion. Conclusions: In order to prevent early deterioration of oral health due to teeth loss held by young adults, attention is needed to the National health insurance coverage of implant for young adults.

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  • Original Article 2020-03-30

    The financial estimation of fluoride application coverage for children and adolescents

    Ji-Eun Jeon, Se-Hwan Jung, Dong-Hun Han, Sae-Rom Lee, Jae-In Ryu

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the financial budget of fluoride application in the National Health Insurance. Methods: The amount of fluoride application was calculated by using the sealant rate (utilization rate 1), dental examination rate (utilization rate 2), and the average rate of these two (utilization rate 3) in children and adolescents. For the next five years, 100% of the existing fees were applied to estimate the financial budget. Results: The total budget for children and adolescents was estimated to be 22.0 billion won minimum and 83.5 billion won maximum in the first year, and 104.8 billion won minimum and 398.5 billion won maximum up to the next five years. Moreover, in high risk groups, the total budget was estimated to be 4.2 billion won minimum and 16.1 billion won maximum in the first year, and 18.6 billion won minimum and 70.8 billion won maximum up to the next five years. Conclusions: The financial budget of fluoride application coverage for children and adolescents was similar or lower than that of the current dental sealants. It needs to implement promptly with the reason of financial saving over the long-term point of view. Based on this evidence, it is affordable and necessary to begin to promote oral health for children and adolescents.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    A study on Korean workers’ practice of brushing teeth after lunch

    Jin-Sun Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean workers’ practice of brushing teeth after lunch, and to provide basic data for the formulation of oral health promotion policies for the Korean workers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using the data from the Sixth (2013-2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, VI-1,2,3). The variables included oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing after lunch), demographic factors, and socioeconomic factors. The study analyzed 8,800 workers from Korea. Complex samples were analyzed through chi-square analysis and logistic regression. Results: The rate of practice of brushing teeth after lunch among Korean workers was 51.6%. Among managers, experts, and office workers, it was the highest at 66.4%, while simple laborers had the lowest rate of 23.6%. The odds ratio of not brushing teeth after lunch was 3.0 times higher among agriculture, fishery workers, and simple laborers than that of managers, experts, and office workers. In addition, the odds ratios of the habit in day laborers were 3.1 times higher than in the commercial workers. All variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Poor working conditions contribute to reduced practice of brushing teeth after lunch. Therefore, a modified working environment for workers, such as day laborers and simple laborers, is required to improve their oral health behavior. In addition, it is necessary to prepare oral health promotion programs that take into account the occupational characteristics of workers.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Effects of health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors on oral disease symptoms in adolescents

    Yun Ju Kim , Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for the improvement of healthrelated behaviors, oral health behaviors and develop an oral health promotion program for adolescents. Therefore, this study investigated health-related behaviors of adolescents and their oral disease symptoms. Methods: Data of 62,276 adolescents were derived from the 13th Korea youth risk behavior webbased survey. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed using complex sampling to determine the effects of health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors on the experience of oral disease symptoms among the adolescents. Results: In total, 52.9% had developed oral symptoms in the previous year. The sample population consisted of 55.1% females, 53.4% third grade high school students, and 51.1% academic achievers. Among the adolescents, 57.6% of those categorized as having low economic status showed high oral disease experience (P<0.001). The increased intake of sweet drinks and snacks due to a higher subjective depression and perception of stress, increased the experience of oral symptoms (P<0.05). Fewer times of toothbrushing per day was correlated to an increase in oral disease symptoms (P<0.001). Conclusions: As health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors formed during adolescence affect adulthood, a systematic oral health education program should be developed and implemented for proper health-related behaviors and oral health management in adolescents.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Determination of the infection rate of dental caries-causing bacteria in adolescents by a real-time PCR test method

    Ye-Rim Mun , Ji-Hyeon Park , Ja-Won Cho , Woo-Ram Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the infection rates of bacteria associated with dental caries among children and adolescents in Korea. Methods: Oral examinations were conducted in 146 students. The numbers of bacteria associated with dental caries, such as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Lactobacillus casei, in the subjects’ oral cavity were counted by real-time PCR, and infection rates for those bacteria were additionally investigated. Results: The infection rate of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Lactobacillus casei was 99.3% (145/146), 63.0% (92/146), 1.4% (2/146), and 25.3% (37/146), respectively. The amounts of Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei did not differ with the participants’ age. However, the number of Streptococcus mutans was 537.6 for primary school students, 5698.2 for middle school students, and 19037.5 for high school students. The mean number of oral bacteria increased with age (P<0.05). The mean bacterial numbers of the infected subjects indicated significant differences in the numbers of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans (P<0.05). Conclusions: The infection rates of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans were distinct in children and adolescents. Efforts to control the bacteria associated with dental caries are needed to prevent dental caries.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Analysis of the difference between regions of frequency of scaling and denture use in the elderly and related factors at the regional level

    Jin-Sun Choi , Se-Hwan Jung

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identify the differences in frequency of use between regions and analyze the association with relevant factors at the regional level since the expansion of the National Health Insurance benefits for scaling and dentures in the elderly. Methods: Data were provided by the National Health Insurance Service and the Korean Statistical Information Service. The dependent variables used were the frequency of scaling per 100 and dentures per 1,000 elderly people in cities, counties, and districts. The independent variables used were dental resources variables, health related behaviors and quality of life variables, and infrastructurerelated variables. The analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 or STATA 13.0 statistical packages. Results: The annual use frequency of scaling per 100 elderly people was higher in the city or district regions than in the county regions. The frequency of denture use per 1,000 elderly people was lower in the city or district regions than in the county regions. In addition, the frequency of scaling and denture use was statistically significant in terms of the number of dentists per 10,000 population, number of dental hygienists per 10,000 population, number of dental institutions per 10,000 population, brushing after lunch rate, healthy living practice rate, nutrition label reading rate and welfare budget among general budgets rate and traffic index, where scaling showed a positive relationship and dentures showed a negative relationship. However, in terms of frequency of denture use, there was a statistically significant positive correlation in the chewing difficulty complaint rate. Conclusions: Despite the health insurance benefits, there were differences between regions in scaling and denture use in the elderly. In terms of the use of scaling, it could be interpreted that the association between health behavior factors at the regional level, infrastructure-related factors, and the use of dentures was due to the poor economic situation of the elderly in the countryside along with the number of dental institutions clustered in the city.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Relationship of loneliness and subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly

    Hye-Kyong Cho , Yun-Sook Jung , Hyo-Jin Heo , Yoo-Sik Youm , Keun-Bae Song , Youn-Hee Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: Loneliness was associated with not only social status but also general health. Psychological conditions in older people have negative effects on general health and oral health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between loneliness and subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) for the questionnaire, UCLA loneliness scale data of 1,511 older adults living in a rural community. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the relevance of subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly according to the level of loneliness. Results: According to the final model that after adjustment for other risk factors (age, gender, level of education, smoking, drinking, etc.), in the elderly who rarely feel loneliness group compared to the elderly who never feel loneliness was Odds ratio (OR) 1.256 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.99-1.60) and sometimes+often feel loneliness was OR 2.110 (95% CI: 1.39-3.21). Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly. Older people feeling loneliness are likely to have more subjective chewing discomfort.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Effectiveness of mentha extracts against oral microorganisms: an in vitro study

    Byul Bo Ra Choi , Se Eun Yun , Sang Rye Park , Gyoo Cheon Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal disease are infectious and chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of mentha extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Methods: This activity of mentha extracts were confirmed by the disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and colony forming unit (CFU) assays. Results: S. mutans and P. gingivalis showed the highest antimicrobial activity within the inhibition zones. The antimicrobial activity was interrupted as the MIC and MBC of the herbal extracts against the two bacteria were 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial effect was determined by the CFU assay. Conclusions: Mentha herb extract demonstrated potential antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and P. gingivalis that cause dental caries and periodontal disease.

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June, 2020
Vol.44 No.2

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784