JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    A step-by-step guide to random forest model using orange data mining in the field of periodontitis

    Hoi-Jeong Lim

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show a procedure for a random forest (RF) analysis which predicts periodontal disease status by using R and Orange Data Mining software, and helps us to understand how to apply the RF technique for dental research. Methods: Oral examination data of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. A RF model was adopted to analyze the data where the target variable was periodontal disease status and the features were gender, age, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption level, smoking status, brushing before sleep, hypertension, and diabetes-related variables. Results: The important features of the RF analysis were in the order of age, marital status, and prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. The accuracy of the RF analysis was 73% which is not high enough for use in the clinical field. Conclusions: The RF technique is an ensemble method used to predict periodontal disease status which produces higher accurate outputs than a single method. This study provides a step-by-step guide using Orange Data Mining for researchers who want to study machine learning techniques.

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  • Original Article 2021-03-30

    Related factors of re-visit intention to the oral health care center for the disabled

    Yeong-Ae Choi , Yun-Sook Jung , Jae-Min Kang , Young-Eun Lee , Youn-Hee Choi , Keun-Bae Song

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the factors related to re-visit intentions of patients who had visited the 10 oral health care centers for the disabled currently operating in Korea. Methods: A self-developed questionnaire (29 items) was distributed among 1,000 randomly selected patients and their guardians who had visited one of the 10 oral health care centers for the disabled, with a consent. Consequently, 874 questionnaires were collected and analysed for statistics using SPSS 25.0. Results: The patients traveled a long distance to visit the oral health care centers because of their specialization for the disabled. With the level of satisfaction with dentist services, dental hygienist services, and facilities increasing, the re-visit intention proportionally rose. Conclusions: This study presents basic data that provides information on the operation of 10 oral health care centers for the disabled. It is imperative to develop a more structured questionnaire, and conduct an annual survey of the disabled visiting the centers.

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  • Original Article 2021-06-30

    Influences of presenteeism of clinical dental hygienists

    Min Kyoung Hye , Min Hee Hong

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the presentism, intention of employment, self-efficacy, degree of exhaustion, and factors affecting presentism of clinical dental hygienists for use as basic data when developing measures to address presentism. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 210 clinical dental hygienists from April 1 to June 30, 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, the Scheffé post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation analysis were applied, based on which a multiple regression analysis was conducted. Results: Dental hygienists scored 3.09 points in presenteeism. The variables that influenced clinical empowerment were job and career burnout, explaining 12.3% of the variance in scores among dental clinic hygienists. Conclusions: As a result, clinical dental hygienists’ presentism is associated with clinical background and exhaustion, and exhaustion as the strongest influence. Therefore, in order to reduce the loss of clinical dental hygienists due to presentism, it is necessary to develop and apply health promotion programs that can manage clinical dental hygienists’ health problems early and to provide support in the organizational aspects of their work.

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  • Original Article 2021-06-30

    Status of caries in permanent teeth of the adolescent in Ansan city after the suspension of the community water fluoridation program

    Jae-In Ryu , Se-Hwan Jung , Sae-Rom Lee , A-Rang Lim

    Abstract : Objectives: Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) was suspended in Ansan city in 2018. The purpose of this study was to inspect the status of caries in the permanent teeth of adolescents and suggest the index as the baseline for cohort study in the CWF suspended area. Methods: Oral examinations and questionnaire surveys were conducted on adolescents aged 12 years. Of 1,479 individuals, 890 (60.2%) consented to the examinations. Frequency and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the status of permanent dental caries by demographic, sociological, and health behavioral characteristics. The study was conducted with approval from IRB Kyung Hee University. Results: The findings reveal gaps in the prevalence of caries among the study sample according to demographic, sociological and health behavioral factors. Rates of untreated caries were higher among adolescents who stayed in the area for a lesser duration, had foreign parents, or had cariogenic drinks more often (p

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  • Original Article 2021-06-30

    Factors of unmet dental care needs among elderly living alone

    Jun Ha Kim , So Yeong Kim , Kyung Hee Jo , Ye Rim Kim , Mijin Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting unmet dental care needs among elderly living alone. Methods: The study subjects were 19,019 elderly living by themselves, who participated in the Korea Community Health Survey 2018 (KCHS, 2018). The data were analyzed using frequency analysis, Rao-Scott chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression analysis, using the SAS 9.4 software. Results: Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a higher odds ratio (OR) for unmet dental care needs among those with a monthly household income below KRW 1,000,000 (OR=1.64, 95% confidence interval, 95%CI=1.39-1.92), compared to those with an income of above KRW 2,000,000. With regards to stress levels, unmet dental care needs were more prevalent among participants in the "stress moderate" (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.06-1.33) and "stress" groups (OR=1.68 95% CI=1.48-1.92), compared to the "no stress" group. Furthermore, the OR for unmet dental care needs was significantly higher among participants in the "depression" group (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.61-2.11) than the "no depression" group. Conclusions: Higher unmet dental care needs were found among participants in the low monthly household income, stress, and depression groups. Further study is needed to analyze the association between factors and needs related to unmet dental care.

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    Changes in the oral health and tooth brushing habits of upper grade primary school children according to the composition of the tooth brushing environment of the school

    Su-Kyung Jwa

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to provide basic data on the establishment of tooth brushing classrooms in elementary schools in South Korea. The basic data was gathered by investigating the upper-grade children’s oral health and brushing habits according to the tooth brushing environment in their respective elementary schools. Methods: A researcher compared the changes in dental caries and oral hygiene status with the Repeated Measure ANOVA in 137 elementary school students from three elementary schools. Results: The results of oral hygiene status, the Gingivitis Index, the use of the tooth brushing facility, and the number of times students brushed their teeth each day were all compared for all three years of the study. Group A (classroom-type), with a classroom-style tooth brushing facility next to the cafeteria, showed more improvement than Groups B (new classroom-type) and C (corridortype). Conclusions: In order to make tooth brushing a habit, the tooth brushing facility should be constructed in the form of a classroom with good accessibility to the cafeteria. An active and practical form of education will need to be provided by the school teacher to help children form this habit.

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  • Original Article 2021-06-30

    Antibacterial effect of mouthwash containing CPC against dental caries caused bacteria

    Won-Ho Cho , Ja-Won Cho , Hyun-Jun Yoo , Kyong-Hoon Shin , Gi-Hae Shin , Yeol-Mae Jeon , Jong-Cheon Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report the antibacterial efficacy in relation to oral disease-causing bacteria using a mouthwash containing 0.05% CPC in an in vitro test. Methods: The sterilization test and susceptibility assay of mouthwash containing 0.05% CPC were investigated against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus; Streptococcus sanguinis as oral bacteria related to dental caries; Enterococcus faecalis as apical periodontitis-related bacteria; and Actinomyces israelii, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescence, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Filifactor alocis as periodontal disease-related bacteria. Results: In the sterilization test, most of the bacteria had more than 99.99% sterilizing power for all samples but compared to other bacteria, the sterilizing power of these samples was not successful for L. acidophilus and E. faecalis bacteria. When comparing the sterilization power between the samples, sample 3 (0.05% CPC+20% ethanol) was the strongest. Conclusions: In the antimicrobial activity test, sample 3 inhibited growth at the lowest concentration overall.

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  • Editorial 2021-03-30

  • Original Article 2021-03-30

    The finance and manpower of oral health care system in Korea and comparison with six selected countries

    Se-Hwan Jung

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the financial and manpower indicators of the oral health care system in Korea and to compare them with six selected countries — the US, Japan, Germany, France, the UK, and Sweden. Methods: It used the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics website and official data sources of the Korean government. Results: In Korea, total oral health care expenditure (TOHCE) per capita was US $ 208, the TOHCE as a share of GDP was 0.5%, the TOHCE as a percentage of total health care spending (THCE) was 6.2%, and the percentage of out-of-pocket payments of TOHCE was 58.8% in 2019. The number of practising dentists per 1,000 population was 0.50 in 2018, and the average annual growth rate since 2000 was 3.3%. Dental specialists as a percentage of practising dentists increased from 0.4% in 2009 to 21.8% in 2020, and the allied dental personnel-to-dentist ratio in dental hospitals and clinics rose from 1.95 in 2013 to 2.34 in 2019. In addition, in 2019, the number of dentists and dental hygienists working in health care institutions or health centers differed distinctly by area; public health dentists accounted for 88% of dentists working at health centers and multiple general dentists were secured in five metropolitans/provinces. Conclusions: In the 21st century, the financial and manpower indicators of oral health care in Korea rose significantly, comparable to the six selected countries, although quality limitations remain. In the future, it is expected that these policies in Korea will be enhanced based on the indicators identified in this study.

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    Evaluation of VGG-16 deep learning algorithm for dental caries classification

    Min-Ji Byon , Eun-Joo Jun , Ji-Soo Kim , Jae-Joon Hwang , Seung-Hwa Jeong

    Abstract : Objectives: Diagnosis of dental caries is based on the dentist’s observation and subjective judgment; therefore, a reliable and objective approach for diagnosing caries is required. Intraoral camera images combined with deep learning technology can be a useful tool to diagnose caries. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the VGG-16 convolutional neural network (CNN) model in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. Methods: Images were obtained from the Internet and websites using keywords linked to teeth and dental caries. The 670 images that were obtained were categorized by an investigator as either sound (404 sound teeth) or dental caries (266 dental caries), and used in this study. The training and test datasets were divided in the ratio of 7:3 and a four-fold cross validation was performed. The Tensorflow-based Python package Keras was used to train and validate the CNN model. Accuracy, Kappa value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve and AUC (area under curve) values were calculated for the test datasets. Results: The accuracy of the VGG-16 deep learning model for the four datasets, through random sampling, was between 0.77 and 0.81, with 0.81 being the highest. The Kappa value was 0.51- 0.60, indicating moderate agreement. The resulting positive predictive values were 0.77-0.82 and negative predictive values were 0.80-0.85. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values were 0.66-0.74, 0.81-0.88, and 0.88-0.91, respectively. Conclusions: The VGG-16 CNN model showed good discriminatory performance in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. The deep learning model can be beneficial in monitoring dental caries in the population.

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December, 2022
Vol.46 No.4

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784