Abstract : Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze dental caries and periodontal diseases in Korean adults depending on types of national health insurance, using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ). Methods: From 2016 to 2018, the final analysis included a total of 12,601 adults over 19 years of age, who had undergone dental inspections for dental caries and periodontitis, and whose national health insurance was verified. Results: Among all the subjects, the ratio of employees was highest (67.4%), followed by the self-employed (39.4%), and then medical care recipients (3.3%). The prevalence of dental caries and periodontitis was 93.0% and 30.5%, respectively, among all subjects. The former was highest for medical aid recipients (95.9%), followed by employees (93.1%), and was lowest for the self-employed (92.2%) (P<0.001). The latter was highest for medical aid recipients (40.7%), followed by the self-employed (35.9%), and was lowest for employees (27.7%) (P<0.001). The prevalence of dental caries in the self-employed group was significantly lower (0.52 times) than that of medical care recipients (95% CI: 0.28-0.94), while no significant difference was seen between the latter and employees. There were also no significant differences among them, depending on the types of national health insurance and periodontitis. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop oral health promotion programs that are not biased toward specific types of health insurance subscriptions, and to establish a business plan for oral prevention of subscribers of medical benefits.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to compare the results of conventional methodology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for acid-producing bacteria and identify the appropriate method for caries activity testing. Methods: Oral examination and caries activity tests, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, were conducted on 33 middle school students in Cheongju, South Korea. Pearson correlation analysis was subsequently performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using the CRT® Bacteria test was highly correlated with the decayed teeth (DT) index (R=0.570, P<0.05); decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (R=0.376, P<0.05); and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.395, P<0.05). The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using real-time PCR was significantly associated with the DT index (R=0.528, P<0.05), DMFT index (R=0.369, P<0.05), and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.426, P =0.013). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the amount and the type of bacteria between the CRT® Bacteria test and real-time PCR; therefore, these tests were found to be more appropriate to determine caries activity than the modified Snyder test. This study suggests that realtime PCR is a better technique for detecting caries activities than conventional techniques, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, because it is easy to use and provides accurate results.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the number of present teeth in a Korean adult population. Methods: We analyzed the effect of the components of metabolic syndrome in adults aged older than 45 years on the number of present teeth using raw data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2013-2015). For the data analysis, complex samples multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed by correcting the disturbance variables as demographic and socioeconomic variables (gender, age, education level, household income, residential area, family type, and economic activity) and oral health-related behavioral variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing frequency, interdental tooth brushing, flossing, and dental checkups). Results: On analyzing the association between the effects of metabolic syndrome components on less than 20 present teeth by adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables and correcting for both general characteristics and oral health-related behavioral variables, the risk of having less than 20 present teeth was 1.25 times (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.46) higher in the high fasting glucose group compared to that in the non-high fasting glucose group. Metabolic syndrome composed of three or more components was significantly associated with less than 20 present teeth. Conclusions: It is necessary to continuously educate Korean adults about oral health behavior. Appropriate interventional programs to prevent oral disease should be provided when patients with metabolic syndrome visit dental clinics and public health centers.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the perception and needs of the caregivers of infants and children regarding oral health screening in order to identify the problems and the improvements required to increase their satisfaction with the oral health screening system. Methods: An online self-reported survey for the national oral health screening system was conducted for 200 parents raising infants and children in Seoul and the metropolitan area of Korea. The questionnaire for caregivers recorded their thoughts on the current problems, the improvements required in oral health screening, the necessity of screening, and the need for oral h ealth education. Results: The caregivers proposed many requests for precise examination and detailed explanation in the infants and children’s oral health screening and inclusion of simple preventive treatment measures during the screening. Although most parents (94.9%) recognized the necessity of oral checkups for their children, only 76.1% went ahead with the screening. The main reason for screening was prevention and early detection of dental caries. Regarding the need for education, the proportion of respondents receiving oral health education (43.1%) was lower than that of oral health screening (76.1%), even if oral health education and counseling were provided during the screening. The caregivers wanted to learn about the correct tooth brushing methods, causes and prevention of tooth decay, fluoride application, and preferred education methods such as hands-on training, education by dental experts, or visualization. Conclusions: Understanding the perception and needs of caregivers regarding the infants and children’s oral health screening would contribute to improvements in the oral health screening system, thereby increasing their satisfaction.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study investigated the contents and structure of chapters on oral health to determine the quality of middle and high school health textbooks. We also comparatively analyzed the learning objectives of these textbooks according to the oral health curriculum proposed by the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) and South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE). Methods: The structure and educational contents of eight health textbooks (middle school, five; high school, three) published in 2019 were analyzed methodologically. We compared the structure and contents between the middle and high school curricula. We also carried out comparisons among five publishing companies. Results: Of the eight health textbooks examined, five (middle school, four; high school, one) had chapters on oral health. In terms of structure, textbooks published by company A had the lowest percentage (0.96%) of pages on oral health. The highest percentage (1.50%) was found in a middle school textbook published by company D. We noted subject-level differences between the curriculum proposed by VDH, SCDE, and that of the published textbooks. There were more keywords pertaining to the definition and development of oral diseases than those for its prevention and management. Conclusions: It is critically important to impart oral health education to middle and high school students for self-management of oral health during adolescence, a period characterized by both rapid physical and psychological development. Therefore, we recommend that all health textbooks should include chapters on oral health. Further, in the health textbooks that already include oral health information, we propose that the revised curricula should include key learning objectives.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors related to periodontal health in middle school and high school adolescents. Methods: This study was conducted using data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2013-2015). Among the 22,948 participants in the Sixth KNHANES, 1,222 participants (aged 12-18 years) who completed the systemic and oral health examinations and questionnaires were included in this study. Independent variables related to demographic socioeconomic status and oral health-related behaviors were the following: age, gender, household income, frequency of daily toothbrushing, smoking, alcohol drinking, annual dental visit, and periodontal treatment. The dependent variables were the prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus.. Results: Among the total participants, 34.1% were diagnosed with prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus, and periodontal health was found to be at its worst at 17 years of age (41.6% of participants). Moreover, household income, alcohol drinking, annual dental visits, and frequency of daily toothbrushing were related to prevalence and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus by alcohol consumption, toothbrushing less than twice per day, and number of DMFT were 5.00 (95% CI: 2.24- 11.18), 2.21 (95% CI: 1.21-4.04), and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.17), respectively. Conclusions: To prevent periodontal disease among adolescents, it is necessary to improve oral health-related behavior and its associated factors and continuous oral health education.
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Abstract : Objectives: Studies on oral health care in North Korea are being pursued in South Korea. However, the covertness of North Korea offers substantial resistance to the access of information from the country, including in the field of oral health care. In this study, we explored North Korea’s oral health care policy and its status in the Kim Jong-Un Era. Methods: We used existing information from Internet searches and also interviewed three health care professionals who had recently contact with North Korea. Results: At present, there are four development policies of oral health care in North Korea: expansion of dental institutions and resource support, strengthening the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, improvement of dental prosthetics, and increasing the responsibility and role of the dental workforce. In addition, there has been an increasing interest in children’s oral health with the development of a few programs. Conclusions: In order to improve overall oral health care, cooperation is required from North Korea in accessing relevant information in the field of children’s oral health, dental prosthetics, and dental materials. For this to occur, there should be a preliminary trust building process between North Korea and South Korea as well as access to information from reliable sources.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the financial budget of fluoride application in the National Health Insurance. Methods: The amount of fluoride application was calculated by using the sealant rate (utilization rate 1), dental examination rate (utilization rate 2), and the average rate of these two (utilization rate 3) in children and adolescents. For the next five years, 100% of the existing fees were applied to estimate the financial budget. Results: The total budget for children and adolescents was estimated to be 22.0 billion won minimum and 83.5 billion won maximum in the first year, and 104.8 billion won minimum and 398.5 billion won maximum up to the next five years. Moreover, in high risk groups, the total budget was estimated to be 4.2 billion won minimum and 16.1 billion won maximum in the first year, and 18.6 billion won minimum and 70.8 billion won maximum up to the next five years. Conclusions: The financial budget of fluoride application coverage for children and adolescents was similar or lower than that of the current dental sealants. It needs to implement promptly with the reason of financial saving over the long-term point of view. Based on this evidence, it is affordable and necessary to begin to promote oral health for children and adolescents.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of preventing dental erosion caused by fermented milk in early carious teeth by applying 0.2% sodium fluoride to the tooth surface and adding 0.5% calcium to the drink.Methods: We selected the experimental drink Yakult, which is the best-selling domestic fermented milk drink. A total of five groups were selected as experimental groups (mineral water, fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+(fermented milk+0.5% Ca), and 0.2% NaF+Distilled water groups). After forming the artificial early caries, the pH cycling was administered for five days to derive surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image results.Results: When comparing the surface microhardness before and after treatment in each group, significant differences were found among the four groups (P0.05). A comparison of the difference in surface microhardness before and after pH cycling among the groups revealed a significant difference (P0.05). The 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups showed significant differences from the other groups (P0.05) showed smoother surfaces than the 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups.Conclusions: Based on these results, it was confirmed that if 0.5% calcium was included in the fermented milk along with the fluoride mouth rinsing program in schools using 0.2% fluoride every week when drinking fermented milk, it is possible to effectively prevent dental erosion even in early carious teeth.
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