JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    The relationship between metabolic syndrome components and the number of remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the number of present teeth in a Korean adult population. Methods: We analyzed the effect of the components of metabolic syndrome in adults aged older than 45 years on the number of present teeth using raw data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2013-2015). For the data analysis, complex samples multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed by correcting the disturbance variables as demographic and socioeconomic variables (gender, age, education level, household income, residential area, family type, and economic activity) and oral health-related behavioral variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing frequency, interdental tooth brushing, flossing, and dental checkups). Results: On analyzing the association between the effects of metabolic syndrome components on less than 20 present teeth by adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables and correcting for both general characteristics and oral health-related behavioral variables, the risk of having less than 20 present teeth was 1.25 times (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.46) higher in the high fasting glucose group compared to that in the non-high fasting glucose group. Metabolic syndrome composed of three or more components was significantly associated with less than 20 present teeth. Conclusions: It is necessary to continuously educate Korean adults about oral health behavior. Appropriate interventional programs to prevent oral disease should be provided when patients with metabolic syndrome visit dental clinics and public health centers.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Caries activity test by realtime PCR method and bacterial cultural method

    Joung-Hee Yun , Ji-Hyeon Park , Ja-Won Cho , Sung-Won Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to compare the results of conventional methodology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for acid-producing bacteria and identify the appropriate method for caries activity testing. Methods: Oral examination and caries activity tests, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, were conducted on 33 middle school students in Cheongju, South Korea. Pearson correlation analysis was subsequently performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using the CRT® Bacteria test was highly correlated with the decayed teeth (DT) index (R=0.570, P<0.05); decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (R=0.376, P<0.05); and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.395, P<0.05). The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using real-time PCR was significantly associated with the DT index (R=0.528, P<0.05), DMFT index (R=0.369, P<0.05), and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.426, P =0.013). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the amount and the type of bacteria between the CRT® Bacteria test and real-time PCR; therefore, these tests were found to be more appropriate to determine caries activity than the modified Snyder test. This study suggests that realtime PCR is a better technique for detecting caries activities than conventional techniques, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, because it is easy to use and provides accurate results.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    A study on Korean workers’ practice of brushing teeth after lunch

    Jin-Sun Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean workers’ practice of brushing teeth after lunch, and to provide basic data for the formulation of oral health promotion policies for the Korean workers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using the data from the Sixth (2013-2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, VI-1,2,3). The variables included oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing after lunch), demographic factors, and socioeconomic factors. The study analyzed 8,800 workers from Korea. Complex samples were analyzed through chi-square analysis and logistic regression. Results: The rate of practice of brushing teeth after lunch among Korean workers was 51.6%. Among managers, experts, and office workers, it was the highest at 66.4%, while simple laborers had the lowest rate of 23.6%. The odds ratio of not brushing teeth after lunch was 3.0 times higher among agriculture, fishery workers, and simple laborers than that of managers, experts, and office workers. In addition, the odds ratios of the habit in day laborers were 3.1 times higher than in the commercial workers. All variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Poor working conditions contribute to reduced practice of brushing teeth after lunch. Therefore, a modified working environment for workers, such as day laborers and simple laborers, is required to improve their oral health behavior. In addition, it is necessary to prepare oral health promotion programs that take into account the occupational characteristics of workers.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Effects of health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors on oral disease symptoms in adolescents

    Yun Ju Kim , Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for the improvement of healthrelated behaviors, oral health behaviors and develop an oral health promotion program for adolescents. Therefore, this study investigated health-related behaviors of adolescents and their oral disease symptoms. Methods: Data of 62,276 adolescents were derived from the 13th Korea youth risk behavior webbased survey. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed using complex sampling to determine the effects of health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors on the experience of oral disease symptoms among the adolescents. Results: In total, 52.9% had developed oral symptoms in the previous year. The sample population consisted of 55.1% females, 53.4% third grade high school students, and 51.1% academic achievers. Among the adolescents, 57.6% of those categorized as having low economic status showed high oral disease experience (P<0.001). The increased intake of sweet drinks and snacks due to a higher subjective depression and perception of stress, increased the experience of oral symptoms (P<0.05). Fewer times of toothbrushing per day was correlated to an increase in oral disease symptoms (P<0.001). Conclusions: As health-related behaviors and oral health behaviors formed during adolescence affect adulthood, a systematic oral health education program should be developed and implemented for proper health-related behaviors and oral health management in adolescents.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Needs of caregivers for national oral health screening for infants and children

    Sun-Woo Park , Ji-A Park , Jae-Young Lee , Gyorin Lee , Bo-Hyoung Jin

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the perception and needs of the caregivers of infants and children regarding oral health screening in order to identify the problems and the improvements required to increase their satisfaction with the oral health screening system. Methods: An online self-reported survey for the national oral health screening system was conducted for 200 parents raising infants and children in Seoul and the metropolitan area of Korea. The questionnaire for caregivers recorded their thoughts on the current problems, the improvements required in oral health screening, the necessity of screening, and the need for oral h ealth education. Results: The caregivers proposed many requests for precise examination and detailed explanation in the infants and children’s oral health screening and inclusion of simple preventive treatment measures during the screening. Although most parents (94.9%) recognized the necessity of oral checkups for their children, only 76.1% went ahead with the screening. The main reason for screening was prevention and early detection of dental caries. Regarding the need for education, the proportion of respondents receiving oral health education (43.1%) was lower than that of oral health screening (76.1%), even if oral health education and counseling were provided during the screening. The caregivers wanted to learn about the correct tooth brushing methods, causes and prevention of tooth decay, fluoride application, and preferred education methods such as hands-on training, education by dental experts, or visualization. Conclusions: Understanding the perception and needs of caregivers regarding the infants and children’s oral health screening would contribute to improvements in the oral health screening system, thereby increasing their satisfaction.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Analysis of oral health contents in middle and high school health textbooks in Korea

    Ji-Liang Kim , Jung-Eun Park , Jong-Hwa Jang

    Abstract : Objectives: This study investigated the contents and structure of chapters on oral health to determine the quality of middle and high school health textbooks. We also comparatively analyzed the learning objectives of these textbooks according to the oral health curriculum proposed by the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) and South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE). Methods: The structure and educational contents of eight health textbooks (middle school, five; high school, three) published in 2019 were analyzed methodologically. We compared the structure and contents between the middle and high school curricula. We also carried out comparisons among five publishing companies. Results: Of the eight health textbooks examined, five (middle school, four; high school, one) had chapters on oral health. In terms of structure, textbooks published by company A had the lowest percentage (0.96%) of pages on oral health. The highest percentage (1.50%) was found in a middle school textbook published by company D. We noted subject-level differences between the curriculum proposed by VDH, SCDE, and that of the published textbooks. There were more keywords pertaining to the definition and development of oral diseases than those for its prevention and management. Conclusions: It is critically important to impart oral health education to middle and high school students for self-management of oral health during adolescence, a period characterized by both rapid physical and psychological development. Therefore, we recommend that all health textbooks should include chapters on oral health. Further, in the health textbooks that already include oral health information, we propose that the revised curricula should include key learning objectives.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Risk factors related to periodontal health of adolescents

    Ji-Soo Kim , Se-Yeon Kim , Min-Ji Byon , Eun-Joo Jun , Seung-Hwa Jeong , Jin-Bom Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors related to periodontal health in middle school and high school adolescents. Methods: This study was conducted using data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2013-2015). Among the 22,948 participants in the Sixth KNHANES, 1,222 participants (aged 12-18 years) who completed the systemic and oral health examinations and questionnaires were included in this study. Independent variables related to demographic socioeconomic status and oral health-related behaviors were the following: age, gender, household income, frequency of daily toothbrushing, smoking, alcohol drinking, annual dental visit, and periodontal treatment. The dependent variables were the prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus.. Results: Among the total participants, 34.1% were diagnosed with prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus, and periodontal health was found to be at its worst at 17 years of age (41.6% of participants). Moreover, household income, alcohol drinking, annual dental visits, and frequency of daily toothbrushing were related to prevalence and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding or calculus. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for prevalence of gingival bleeding or calculus by alcohol consumption, toothbrushing less than twice per day, and number of DMFT were 5.00 (95% CI: 2.24- 11.18), 2.21 (95% CI: 1.21-4.04), and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.17), respectively. Conclusions: To prevent periodontal disease among adolescents, it is necessary to improve oral health-related behavior and its associated factors and continuous oral health education.

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  • Original Article 2020-12-30

    Analysis of the distribution and association of periodontal disease-causing bacteria in saliva according to the severity of periodontitis in the elderly in some communities

    Sukmin Lee , Yun-Sook Jung , Keun-Bae Song , Youn-Hee Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: Periodontitis-causing microorganisms and their virulence factors can provoke periodontal destruction in the host. This study was aimed at evaluating the distribution of periodontal disease and its relationship with 11 periodontal disease-causing bacteria in the elderly.Methods: Individuals aged 60 years or above were recruited after obtaining informed consent. The clinical attachment loss was measured at studied sites to determine the severity of periodontitis. Further, the stimulated salivary samples were collected and analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect 11 strains of periodontitis-causing bacteria.Results: The severity of periodontal disease was proportional to the amount of periodontal disease-causing bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis in the red complex increased from 6.60±5.50 in stage 1 to 5.36±5.39 in stage 2 and 7.19±5.56 in stage 3 (P=0.003). Tannerella forsythia increased from 6.54±4.60 in stage 1 to 7.44±4.56 in stage 2 and 8.49±4.70 in stage 3 (P=0.007).Conclusions: The presence of complex bacterial groups and their number of strains were high in participants with severe periodontitis. Controlling periodontitis-related bacteria is important for periodontal health in the elderly.

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  • Original Article 2020-12-30

    Prevention of dental erosion in early dental caries by application of remineralizing substance to fermented beverage

    Ji-Eun Kim , Seong-Soog Jeong , Ki-Ho Chung , Choong-Ho Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of preventing dental erosion caused by fermented milk in early carious teeth by applying 0.2% sodium fluoride to the tooth surface and adding 0.5% calcium to the drink.Methods: We selected the experimental drink Yakult, which is the best-selling domestic fermented milk drink. A total of five groups were selected as experimental groups (mineral water, fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+(fermented milk+0.5% Ca), and 0.2% NaF+Distilled water groups). After forming the artificial early caries, the pH cycling was administered for five days to derive surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image results.Results: When comparing the surface microhardness before and after treatment in each group, significant differences were found among the four groups (P0.05). A comparison of the difference in surface microhardness before and after pH cycling among the groups revealed a significant difference (P0.05). The 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups showed significant differences from the other groups (P0.05) showed smoother surfaces than the 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups.Conclusions: Based on these results, it was confirmed that if 0.5% calcium was included in the fermented milk along with the fluoride mouth rinsing program in schools using 0.2% fluoride every week when drinking fermented milk, it is possible to effectively prevent dental erosion even in early carious teeth.

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  • Original Article 2021-03-30

    Association between periodontal disease and hypertension using propensity score matching: results from the seventh (2016-2018) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surve

    Eun Young Park , Eun-kyong Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to show a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension. Methods: This study analyzed data of 6794 adults over 19 years based on results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2016-2018. Complex sample analysis and propensity score matching analysis methods were conducted to determine whether a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension existed. Results: Results of the complex sample logistic regression analysis were: OR=1.4 (95% CI:1.23- 1.58). However, the result of the conditional logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching yielded no correlation between periodontitis and hypertension (OR=1.03 (95% CI:0.92- 1.16)). Conclusions: It is difficult to conclude that a significant correlation exists between hypertension and periodontal disease, and further studies need to be performed to assess a significant correlation.

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December, 2021
Vol.45 No.4

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784