Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to provide basic data on the establishment of tooth brushing classrooms in elementary schools in South Korea. The basic data was gathered by investigating the upper-grade children’s oral health and brushing habits according to the tooth brushing environment in their respective elementary schools. Methods: A researcher compared the changes in dental caries and oral hygiene status with the Repeated Measure ANOVA in 137 elementary school students from three elementary schools. Results: The results of oral hygiene status, the Gingivitis Index, the use of the tooth brushing facility, and the number of times students brushed their teeth each day were all compared for all three years of the study. Group A (classroom-type), with a classroom-style tooth brushing facility next to the cafeteria, showed more improvement than Groups B (new classroom-type) and C (corridortype). Conclusions: In order to make tooth brushing a habit, the tooth brushing facility should be constructed in the form of a classroom with good accessibility to the cafeteria. An active and practical form of education will need to be provided by the school teacher to help children form this habit.
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Abstract : Objectives: Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) was suspended in Ansan city in 2018. The purpose of this study was to inspect the status of caries in the permanent teeth of adolescents and suggest the index as the baseline for cohort study in the CWF suspended area. Methods: Oral examinations and questionnaire surveys were conducted on adolescents aged 12 years. Of 1,479 individuals, 890 (60.2%) consented to the examinations. Frequency and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the status of permanent dental caries by demographic, sociological, and health behavioral characteristics. The study was conducted with approval from IRB Kyung Hee University. Results: The findings reveal gaps in the prevalence of caries among the study sample according to demographic, sociological and health behavioral factors. Rates of untreated caries were higher among adolescents who stayed in the area for a lesser duration, had foreign parents, or had cariogenic drinks more often (p
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Abstract : Objectives: Diagnosis of dental caries is based on the dentist’s observation and subjective judgment; therefore, a reliable and objective approach for diagnosing caries is required. Intraoral camera images combined with deep learning technology can be a useful tool to diagnose caries. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the VGG-16 convolutional neural network (CNN) model in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. Methods: Images were obtained from the Internet and websites using keywords linked to teeth and dental caries. The 670 images that were obtained were categorized by an investigator as either sound (404 sound teeth) or dental caries (266 dental caries), and used in this study. The training and test datasets were divided in the ratio of 7:3 and a four-fold cross validation was performed. The Tensorflow-based Python package Keras was used to train and validate the CNN model. Accuracy, Kappa value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve and AUC (area under curve) values were calculated for the test datasets. Results: The accuracy of the VGG-16 deep learning model for the four datasets, through random sampling, was between 0.77 and 0.81, with 0.81 being the highest. The Kappa value was 0.51- 0.60, indicating moderate agreement. The resulting positive predictive values were 0.77-0.82 and negative predictive values were 0.80-0.85. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values were 0.66-0.74, 0.81-0.88, and 0.88-0.91, respectively. Conclusions: The VGG-16 CNN model showed good discriminatory performance in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. The deep learning model can be beneficial in monitoring dental caries in the population.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the association between oral examinations and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on dental care by age groups. Methods: The Korea Health Panel 2011-2018 data were used to aggregate eight-year outpatient data for 12,684 individuals who were household members that responded to the 2011 survey. The final study subjects included 5,305 individuals who have been retained in the panel with at least one OOP expenditure on dental care over eight years. The dependent and independent variables were the individual’s average OOP dental care expenditures and oral examination, respectively. For age-stratification analysis, they were categorized into seven age groups: 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45- 54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+years. The difference in OOP expenditures on dental care by subject characteristics was analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Log-linear regression models were used to analyze the effect of oral examinations on OOP expenditures on dental care. Results: Individuals who underwent an oral examination had an approximately 1.4% higher OOP expenditure on dental care than their counterparts (β=0.014, P =0.0072). Age-stratified analyses showed that among people in the 55-64 group those who underwent an oral examination had an approximately 2.3% higher OOP expenditure on dental care than non-examiners (β=0.023, P =0.0218). Conclusions: There was no evidence that oral examination could lead to increased OOP expenditure on dental care, except among those aged 55-64.
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Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries experience of children in Laos. Methods: Oral examinations were performed on a total of 1,540 students in 513 primary school students, 537 middle school students, and 490 high school students and the results analyzed. Results: The dft index (decayed-filled primary teeth index) of 6-year-old primary school children was 6.04. The DMFT index (decayed-filled-missing permanent teeth index) was 1.59 in 12-year-old middle school children and 2.04 in 15-year-old middle school children. Conclusions: Caries experience in most of the age groups was on the high side. It is considered that in Laos, a treatment project to stop the progression of caries is necessary in parallel with a prevention project to lower the caries fatality rate.
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Abstract : Objectives: With the rapid changes in society, there are more arguments for redefining dental education system. This study aimed to review and analyze the problems in the current dental education system in Korea and then propose an integrated education system based on those findings. Methods: A narrative review of the problems confronting the dental education system in Korea was carried out. Accordingly, full-text screening and specialists’ discussions were extracted from the review. The purpose of the review was to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of Korean dental education systems to offer perspectives on an integrated education system in accordance with the specialists’ opinions. Results: The results revealed that the problems of the current dental education system were identified in clinical education, basic science, and humanities and social sciences. Dental schools should provide clinical education so that dental students can be exposed to the clinical environment at an early stage and perform patient-based clinical practice. It is also imperative to encourage participation in research programs to train dental scientists, as well as to reflect on courses that can adapt to changes brought about by new technologies. It is recommended that education opportunities for integrated humanities and social sciences be provided. Conclusions: It will be critical in the future for dental schools to embrace a flexible education system from various perspectives. It is vital that dental schools play a role in developing students’ critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Finally, as part of an integrated education system, an improvement program should be devised.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of detergents containing a centella quantitative extract and dipotassium glycyrrhizinate and potassium nitrate on patient hygiene performance index, gingivitis index, gingival bleeding index, EPT, and halitosis. Methods: A parallel comparison, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted for 8 weeks with 60 adult men and women as participants. Results: According to the PMA index, gingival index of Talbott, gingival hemorrhage index, Turesky’s plaque index, and bad breath measurement, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group after 4 weeks (P
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Abstract : Objectives: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a major public health problem around the world. There is a high demand for health promotion programs that allow schools and local children’s centers to brush their teeth and wash their hands compared to others after lunch; and furthermore, the demand for schools with brushing facilities is twice that of schools without brushing facilities. However, students are returning home without brushing their teeth after lunch at kindergartens and schools, where face-to-face classes are conducted. This situation can be further understood by examining the education office’s official letter that considers the risk of “droplet infection” at kindergartens and schools. Thus, this pilot study is interested in identifying the relationship between brushing teeth and the spread of droplets, and proposing proper brushing guidelines for students in schools. Methods: The droplet diffusion test was conducted in three ways: during conversation, when brushing teeth, and when brushing teeth with the mouth closed. A Mie Scattering technique using a continuous wave (CW) laser was performed to observe and compare the distribution of droplets ejected from the oral cavity in this experiment. Results: As a result, it was confirmed that the droplets that spread, while brushing the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior region, were significantly reduced when brushing the teeth with the mouth closed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, personal hygiene education such as the school group tooth brushing project and hand washing should be continuously conducted and monitored by installing transparent partitions, and the tooth brushing technique to prevent the spread of droplets in schools.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identify the socioeconomic factors related to tooth brushing behavior among adults in Korea.Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) in 2019. Respondents aged 19 years and older (n=299,099) comprised the study sample. The dependent variable was tooth brushing behavior, whereas the independent variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. The data were processed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, ANOVA, and adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA 17.0 program, with significance set at the 5% level.Results: About half (55%) of the respondents brushed their teeth at least twice a day. The findings also revealed significant differences according to socioeconomic status (P
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identifying the relationship between exposure to secondhand smoking and oral diseases in adolescents, based on the web-based youth health risk behavior survey from 2020. Methods: Among the 54,948 adolescent respondents to the 16th youth health risk behavior survey in 2020, this study included a total of 48,867 non-smoking adolescent participants who had never used regular cigarettes, vapes, or e-cigarettes. Analysis of the complex sample survey data was performed by applying weights according to the complex sample provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Cross-tabulation analysis by complex sampling using the Rao- Scott chi-square test and complex-sample t-test was then performed to identify the relationship between subject characteristics and gingival pain and bleeding prevalence. Finally, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of secondhand smoking on symptoms of gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 version, and the statistical significance level was defined as P
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