JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2021-03-30

    The finance and manpower of oral health care system in Korea and comparison with six selected countries

    Se-Hwan Jung

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the financial and manpower indicators of the oral health care system in Korea and to compare them with six selected countries — the US, Japan, Germany, France, the UK, and Sweden. Methods: It used the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics website and official data sources of the Korean government. Results: In Korea, total oral health care expenditure (TOHCE) per capita was US $ 208, the TOHCE as a share of GDP was 0.5%, the TOHCE as a percentage of total health care spending (THCE) was 6.2%, and the percentage of out-of-pocket payments of TOHCE was 58.8% in 2019. The number of practising dentists per 1,000 population was 0.50 in 2018, and the average annual growth rate since 2000 was 3.3%. Dental specialists as a percentage of practising dentists increased from 0.4% in 2009 to 21.8% in 2020, and the allied dental personnel-to-dentist ratio in dental hospitals and clinics rose from 1.95 in 2013 to 2.34 in 2019. In addition, in 2019, the number of dentists and dental hygienists working in health care institutions or health centers differed distinctly by area; public health dentists accounted for 88% of dentists working at health centers and multiple general dentists were secured in five metropolitans/provinces. Conclusions: In the 21st century, the financial and manpower indicators of oral health care in Korea rose significantly, comparable to the six selected countries, although quality limitations remain. In the future, it is expected that these policies in Korea will be enhanced based on the indicators identified in this study.

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    A study on the oral environment improvement effect of centella asiaticca extract and dentifrice containing potassium nitrate and potassium glyciric acid

    Keum-Sun Lee , Da-Hui Kim , Ja-Won Cho , Chan-Ho Kim , Jin-young Lee , Ji-Hyeon Park

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of detergents containing a centella quantitative extract and dipotassium glycyrrhizinate and potassium nitrate on patient hygiene performance index, gingivitis index, gingival bleeding index, EPT, and halitosis. Methods: A parallel comparison, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted for 8 weeks with 60 adult men and women as participants. Results: According to the PMA index, gingival index of Talbott, gingival hemorrhage index, Turesky’s plaque index, and bad breath measurement, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group after 4 weeks (P

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    A study on the Korean dental education system II: the need for integrated education system

    Yoon Min Gil , Jihyun Lee , Ho-Beom Kwon , Sun-Young Kim , Ryan Jin Young Kim , Shin-Young Park , Youngha Song , Shin Hye Chung , Young-A Ji

    Abstract : Objectives: With the rapid changes in society, there are more arguments for redefining dental education system. This study aimed to review and analyze the problems in the current dental education system in Korea and then propose an integrated education system based on those findings. Methods: A narrative review of the problems confronting the dental education system in Korea was carried out. Accordingly, full-text screening and specialists’ discussions were extracted from the review. The purpose of the review was to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of Korean dental education systems to offer perspectives on an integrated education system in accordance with the specialists’ opinions. Results: The results revealed that the problems of the current dental education system were identified in clinical education, basic science, and humanities and social sciences. Dental schools should provide clinical education so that dental students can be exposed to the clinical environment at an early stage and perform patient-based clinical practice. It is also imperative to encourage participation in research programs to train dental scientists, as well as to reflect on courses that can adapt to changes brought about by new technologies. It is recommended that education opportunities for integrated humanities and social sciences be provided. Conclusions: It will be critical in the future for dental schools to embrace a flexible education system from various perspectives. It is vital that dental schools play a role in developing students’ critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Finally, as part of an integrated education system, an improvement program should be devised.

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    Evaluation of VGG-16 deep learning algorithm for dental caries classification

    Min-Ji Byon , Eun-Joo Jun , Ji-Soo Kim , Jae-Joon Hwang , Seung-Hwa Jeong

    Abstract : Objectives: Diagnosis of dental caries is based on the dentist’s observation and subjective judgment; therefore, a reliable and objective approach for diagnosing caries is required. Intraoral camera images combined with deep learning technology can be a useful tool to diagnose caries. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the VGG-16 convolutional neural network (CNN) model in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. Methods: Images were obtained from the Internet and websites using keywords linked to teeth and dental caries. The 670 images that were obtained were categorized by an investigator as either sound (404 sound teeth) or dental caries (266 dental caries), and used in this study. The training and test datasets were divided in the ratio of 7:3 and a four-fold cross validation was performed. The Tensorflow-based Python package Keras was used to train and validate the CNN model. Accuracy, Kappa value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve and AUC (area under curve) values were calculated for the test datasets. Results: The accuracy of the VGG-16 deep learning model for the four datasets, through random sampling, was between 0.77 and 0.81, with 0.81 being the highest. The Kappa value was 0.51- 0.60, indicating moderate agreement. The resulting positive predictive values were 0.77-0.82 and negative predictive values were 0.80-0.85. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values were 0.66-0.74, 0.81-0.88, and 0.88-0.91, respectively. Conclusions: The VGG-16 CNN model showed good discriminatory performance in detecting dental caries in intraoral camera images. The deep learning model can be beneficial in monitoring dental caries in the population.

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    Changes in the oral health and tooth brushing habits of upper grade primary school children according to the composition of the tooth brushing environment of the school

    Su-Kyung Jwa

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to provide basic data on the establishment of tooth brushing classrooms in elementary schools in South Korea. The basic data was gathered by investigating the upper-grade children’s oral health and brushing habits according to the tooth brushing environment in their respective elementary schools. Methods: A researcher compared the changes in dental caries and oral hygiene status with the Repeated Measure ANOVA in 137 elementary school students from three elementary schools. Results: The results of oral hygiene status, the Gingivitis Index, the use of the tooth brushing facility, and the number of times students brushed their teeth each day were all compared for all three years of the study. Group A (classroom-type), with a classroom-style tooth brushing facility next to the cafeteria, showed more improvement than Groups B (new classroom-type) and C (corridortype). Conclusions: In order to make tooth brushing a habit, the tooth brushing facility should be constructed in the form of a classroom with good accessibility to the cafeteria. An active and practical form of education will need to be provided by the school teacher to help children form this habit.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Factors affecting job satisfaction of dental hygienists related to foreign dental health services

    Myeonghwa Park , Sang-Im Lee , Jae-Young Lee , Jong-Hwa Jang

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between English communication ability and job satisfaction of dental hygienists involved in the process of providing dental health services to foreigners and to analyze factors related to job satisfaction. Methods: Both online and offline surveys were conducted in parallel to measure English communication competency and job satisfaction. Participants were 195 clinical dental hygienists provided dental health services to foreigners. Spearman’s rho analysis was performed on the correlation between English communication ability, and job satisfaction, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on the factors related to the job satisfaction of the dental hygienist. Results: The job satisfaction of dental hygienists was 2.99 point out of 5 points. There was a strong positive relationship between English communication ability and english communication frequency (r=0.682), and the higher the English communication ability, the higher the job satisfaction (r=0.357). Factors affecting job satisfaction were English communication ability (β=0.378, P

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  • Original Article 2021-06-30

    2019 Laos children’s dental caries experience survey

    Chae-Young Rhee , Ja-Won Cho , Hyun-Jun Yoo , Nitthasack Phommavongsa , Yong-Su Ahn , Hyung-Suk Oh

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries experience of children in Laos. Methods: Oral examinations were performed on a total of 1,540 students in 513 primary school students, 537 middle school students, and 490 high school students and the results analyzed. Results: The dft index (decayed-filled primary teeth index) of 6-year-old primary school children was 6.04. The DMFT index (decayed-filled-missing permanent teeth index) was 1.59 in 12-year-old middle school children and 2.04 in 15-year-old middle school children. Conclusions: Caries experience in most of the age groups was on the high side. It is considered that in Laos, a treatment project to stop the progression of caries is necessary in parallel with a prevention project to lower the caries fatality rate.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Preliminary experiments on proposals for the spread of droplets due to tooth brushing in schools

    Ji-Young Son , Hyung-Rok Do, Seong-Ik Cha, Dong-Hun Han

    Abstract : Objectives: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a major public health problem around the world. There is a high demand for health promotion programs that allow schools and local children’s centers to brush their teeth and wash their hands compared to others after lunch; and furthermore, the demand for schools with brushing facilities is twice that of schools without brushing facilities. However, students are returning home without brushing their teeth after lunch at kindergartens and schools, where face-to-face classes are conducted. This situation can be further understood by examining the education office’s official letter that considers the risk of “droplet infection” at kindergartens and schools. Thus, this pilot study is interested in identifying the relationship between brushing teeth and the spread of droplets, and proposing proper brushing guidelines for students in schools. Methods: The droplet diffusion test was conducted in three ways: during conversation, when brushing teeth, and when brushing teeth with the mouth closed. A Mie Scattering technique using a continuous wave (CW) laser was performed to observe and compare the distribution of droplets ejected from the oral cavity in this experiment. Results: As a result, it was confirmed that the droplets that spread, while brushing the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior region, were significantly reduced when brushing the teeth with the mouth closed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, personal hygiene education such as the school group tooth brushing project and hand washing should be continuously conducted and monitored by installing transparent partitions, and the tooth brushing technique to prevent the spread of droplets in schools.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Effect of secondhand smoking on gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents in South Korea

    Mi Jin Choi , So Yeong Kim , Hye Young Jang

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identifying the relationship between exposure to secondhand smoking and oral diseases in adolescents, based on the web-based youth health risk behavior survey from 2020. Methods: Among the 54,948 adolescent respondents to the 16th youth health risk behavior survey in 2020, this study included a total of 48,867 non-smoking adolescent participants who had never used regular cigarettes, vapes, or e-cigarettes. Analysis of the complex sample survey data was performed by applying weights according to the complex sample provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Cross-tabulation analysis by complex sampling using the Rao- Scott chi-square test and complex-sample t-test was then performed to identify the relationship between subject characteristics and gingival pain and bleeding prevalence. Finally, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of secondhand smoking on symptoms of gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 version, and the statistical significance level was defined as P

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  • Original Article 2021-12-30

    Impact of COVID-19 on dental technicians

    Eun-Jeong Bae

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on dental technicians and dental laboratories. Methods: In June 2020, self-reported questionnaires were distributed to and completed by dental technicians who attended the Seoul Dental Technologist Association’s academic conference (n=210). The responses were cross analyzed with frequency analysis (α=0.05). Results: Due to COVID-19, the number of employees has decreased to less than 20%, and sales of dental laboratories have decreased by 21-40%. On the Likert 5-point scale for individual precautions, ‘I wear a mask when using public transportation’ was the highest at 4.80. If infected with COVID-19, ‘my family’s infection is most concerned’ was the highest 3.89, but there was no significant difference between having children under the age of 13 in the family and having an elderly family over 65 years old (P>0.05). Conclusions: To prevent infection by dental technicians, it is mandatory to check body temperature when going to work and refrain from eating while working. As COVID-19 continues for a long time, it is necessary to continuously investigate the status of infected persons among dental technicians and vaccination rates as health care workers.

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September, 2022
Vol.46 No.3

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784