Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of silver fluoride (AgF) on the formation of cariogenic biofilm and surface of dentin in vitro.Methods: Bovine dentin specimens with artificial caries were prepared and divided into 3 groups: untreated control, AgF-treated, and silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated. Streptococcus mutans cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was used to induce biofilm. The specimens were placed in a well plate containing BHI broth and S. mutans bacterial suspension, and incubated under aerobic conditions supplemented with 5% CO2 at 37℃ for 24 hours. After the incubation, the specimens were washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and sonicated to obtain a bacterial suspension. The diluted bacterial suspension was then smeared on a blood agar plate and cultured for 72 hours at 5% CO2 and 37℃. Following this, the number of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) was counted and converted into logarithms for analysis. Additional specimens of each group were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was also performed for component analysis of the dentin surface.Results: The number of S. mutans bacterial CFUs was significantly lower in the AgF and SDF groups than in the untreated control group. It was shown that SDF inhibited biofilm formation more than AgF; however, there was no statistical significance. The SEM images showed particles formed after AgF and SDF application were deposited on the dentin. It is confirmed through EDS analysis that the particles contained silver and fluoride ions.Conclusions: This study confirmed that AgF application effectively inhibited the formation of the early S. mutans biofilm. It is suggested that AgF solution may be effectively used in the clinical setting to prevent caries without occurrence of gingival irritation or bad odors.
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Abstract : Objectives: Oral streptococci play a significant role in the development of dental caries. Among them, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the principal causative agents of dental caries. Rheum palmatum is a flowering plant of the family Polygonaceae with several known medicinal properties. However, its effects on oral streptococci have yet to be established. Therefore, we investigated the effects of Rheum palmatum for its potential use as an anticaries agent in inhibiting the growth of streptococci and preventing biofilm formation.Methods: Rheum palmatum extract was diluted with sterile distilled water to obtain various extract concentrations. Several strains of oral bacteria, including S. mutans and S. sobrinus , were treated with the varying concentrations. The effects of the extract on bacterial growth was examined using the viable cell count method. Glucan synthesis was measured using a spectrophotometer at 650 nm optical density. Crystal violet staining was also carried out to observe the effect of the extract on biofilm formation.Results: The growth of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly inhibited by the Rheum palmatum solution at concentrations of 0.3% or more compared to the control group. The viable cell count results indicated that the number of bacterial colonies decreased 1.2-fold and 1.7-fold at concentrations of 1.25% and 2.5%, respectively, compared to the control group. Biofilm formation by S. mutans and S. sobrinus was suppressed more than 20-fold compared to the control group at extract concentrations of 1.25% or more.Conclusions: The extract inhibited the growth of caries-causing bacteria, namely S. mutans and S. sobrinus . Furthermore, the extract inhibited the synthesis of glucan and biofilm formation by S. mutans and S. sobrinus . Therefore, this study suggests that the extract is a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent for controlling dental caries.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the trends of the gap in toothbrushing and dental care according to the household income level of all people using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (the KNHANES) data.Methods: Data from 2007-2020 were downloaded from the KNHANES website. Data integration and analysis were conducted for each wave. The prevalence of toothbrushing less than twice a day, toothbrushing after lunch, unmet dental care needs, regular dental check-ups, and preventive dental services use were each estimated based on the data users’ guidebook. The absolute difference (AD) between the lowest and highest income level and the prevalence ratio (PR) were calculated.Results: The prevalence of toothbrushing less than twice a day and toothbrushing after lunch improved by 5.3% and 13.6%, respectively. However, AD decreased by 4.5% and 2.4%, respectively. The step-wise social gradient in the PR of these indicators was maintained. The prevalence of unmet dental care needs improved substantially from 38.7% in Wave 4 to 21.0% in Wave 7. However, AD and PR were the poorest in Wave 7. The prevalence of regular dental check-ups and preventive dental service use improved steadily by Wave 8 to 45.0% and 37.0%, respectively. However, AD in Wave 8 was ―16.8% for the prevalence of regular dental check-ups and ―12.2% for preventive dental service use. The social gradient in the PR was maintained.Conclusions: While toothbrushing and dental care use have improved over the past decade, disparity by income level has not been noticeably reduced. This study’s results also reflected the achievements and limitations of the Korean government’s policies and projects for toothbrushing and dental hygiene habits.
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Abstract : Objectives: International students attending Korean universities are sometimes not able to receive timely dental treatment, despite the need for dental treatment owing to various oral health problems. The purpose of the study was to identify various barriers to the regular use of dental services by international students in a metropolitan area of Korea.Methods: Questionnaires, both online and offline, were sent to 500 foreign university students enrolled in five selected universities located in Daegu city and nearby areas, with a total of 19 valid responses received. The questionnaire consisted of 41 items, including demographic characteristics, oral hygiene-related behavior, barriers to dental services access, and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The internal validity of each factor was 0.8 or higher (Cronbach Alpha α=0.86), confirming the reliability. All data were analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows ver. 25.0 was used for analysis, and the statistical significance level was set to 0.05%.Results: Among the international student participants, 69.5% did not visit the dentist during their stay in Korea, and those with low prevalence of gum bleeding and plaque were more likely to visit the dentist regularly. Financial problems and lack of knowledge and interest in oral health were significantly associated with the use of dental services. The revised model’s explanatory power was 20.3%.Conclusions: In order to improve the oral and general health of international students residing in Korea, university level oral health education programs, oral health care centers, and governmental support programs should be implemented.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aims to seek positive measures for students in a dental hygiene program to adapt well to college life by analyzing the effects of their adult attachment styles and social support on their adaptation to college life.Methods: Data were collected from June 1 to August 30, 2021. It was conducted with a self administered questionnaire. In consideration of the dropout rate, the study recruited 200 participants. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0.Results: Regarding correlations with adaptation to college life, the analysis revealed positive correlations for adult attachment styles and social support. Significant correlations were seen in the following factors affecting adaptation to college life: satisfaction with college life_dummy 2, satisfaction with major_dummy 1, and adult attachment styles. The factor with the strongest effect (35.7%) on adaptation to college life was adult attachment styles.Conclusions: Factors affecting college life adaptation were found to affect college life adaptation as college life satisfaction, major satisfaction, and adult attachment type increased. System support is needed to develop a counseling program tailored to college life by adult attachment type to increase college life satisfaction and major satisfaction.
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Abstract : Objectives: The study aims to investigate the influence of oral health service experience on oral health behavior of North Korean defectors and contribute to the development and implementation of oral health education among this population.Methods: A self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted with 161 North Korean defectors in Hanawon from April, 2015 to September, 2015. Of these participants, 50 were excluded owing to insufficient questionnaire data. The questionnaire was developed based on the WHO’s Oral Health Survey (OHS) and the Korean National Oral Health Survey (KNOHS). Three categories were included in the questionnaire: demographic characteristics, dental service experience in North Korea, and oral health behavior.Results: Males had higher levels of perceived oral health compared to females, with differences according to the region they are from in North Korea. Those who received tooth brushing instruction in North Korea showed a greater tendency to practice tooth brushing after lunch, while those who received oral health examination showed a higher level of use of oral rinses. Further, the experience of dental scaling significantly influenced both practicing tooth brushing after lunch and use of oral rinses.Conclusions: This study confirmed that the previous experience of oral health service in North Korea positively influenced current oral health behavior of North Korean defectors. Continued oral health education can enhance their oral health behavior, oral health, and quality of life. Thus, it is suggested that policies and oral health education should be developed according to their characteristics and oral health service experience in North Korea.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the inequality trends in self-rated poor oral health, chewing discomfort, and speaking discomfort of adults according to the household income level using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).Methods: Data from 2007-2020 were downloaded from the KNHANES website and were integrated by year within each wave. The participants were 19 years old or over who responded to the oral health items of the questionnaire survey. Prevalence of self-rated poor oral health, chewing discomfort, and speaking discomfort were estimated according to the guidebook for data users. The age standardized rates were computed using the 2005 standard population. Absolute difference (AD) between the lowest and highest household income levels and the prevalence ratio (PR) as relative ratio were calculated.Results: The prevalence of self-rated poor oral health decreased by 14.0%, but the AD increased by 3.0%, and the PR was enlarged in the lower household income level group. The prevalence of chewing discomfort and speaking discomfort decreased by 12.5% and 4.8%, respectively, but the AD of the two indicators persisted, and the PR was enlarged in the lower household income level group.Conclusions: Self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life have improved overall over the past decade in Korean adults, but the severity remains, and the problem of equity has persisted or aggravated. Therefore, it is necessary to find an upstream approach to resolve the inequality in oral health in Korea.
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