Abstract : Objectives: In order to understand the factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life of older adults, we investigated the quality of life, oral health status, and oral health behavior of older adults in a metropolitan city in Korea. Methods: Data were collected from October 2019 to March 2020, after approval was obtained from the authors’ institutional review board. Oral examinations were administered and a structured questionnaire was distributed to 150 older adults at a public nursing home. Data on sociodemographic factors, oral health behaviors, general health questions, and oral health-related quality of life (assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 [OHIP-14]) were collected with the questionnaire. To assess the general health condition of the participants, grip strength and upper arm and calf circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between oral health-related quality of life and other variables. Results: Whether brushing was performed, the number of remaining teeth, and the presence of periodontal disease were found to correlate with OHIP-14 scores (P<0.05). Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores and sociodemographic factors in older adults through multiple logistic regression analyses with general health, oral health habits and conditions, and need for assistance with daily oral health care. Correlations between OHIP-14 scores and general health variables, such as thigh circumference and grip strength, revealed a low oral health-related quality of life in participants who needed help during brushing (P<0.05). Conclusions: Results of the study confirmed a relationship between OHIP-14 scores and oral health and habits among older adults in public nursing homes with socioeconomic status, and general health, and oral health, and each variable affects the relationship. Further analysis and additional epidemiological studies are needed to understand the interrelationships.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in the genotype distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), the main cause of periodontal disease, according to smoking status. Methods: Two hundred thirty adults with periodontal disease were selected as subjects and were classified into either a smoking or non-smoking group. Smoking behavior was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire, and subgingival plaque was collected and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to confirm the P. gingivalis genotype. For statistical analysis, SPSS Ver 25.0 was used. Results: P. gingivalis was expressed in 224 subjects (97.4%), and there was no difference in its expression rate according to smoking. However, there was a significant difference in smoking in type III genotype and smoking period in type II genotype with P. gingivalis (P =0.003). Conclusions: Although smoking was not related to the overall distribution of P. gingivalis, increased volume and duration may inhibit the expression of type II and type III genotypes.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the financial and manpower indicators of the oral health care system in Korea and to compare them with six selected countries — the US, Japan, Germany, France, the UK, and Sweden. Methods: It used the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics website and official data sources of the Korean government. Results: In Korea, total oral health care expenditure (TOHCE) per capita was US $ 208, the TOHCE as a share of GDP was 0.5%, the TOHCE as a percentage of total health care spending (THCE) was 6.2%, and the percentage of out-of-pocket payments of TOHCE was 58.8% in 2019. The number of practising dentists per 1,000 population was 0.50 in 2018, and the average annual growth rate since 2000 was 3.3%. Dental specialists as a percentage of practising dentists increased from 0.4% in 2009 to 21.8% in 2020, and the allied dental personnel-to-dentist ratio in dental hospitals and clinics rose from 1.95 in 2013 to 2.34 in 2019. In addition, in 2019, the number of dentists and dental hygienists working in health care institutions or health centers differed distinctly by area; public health dentists accounted for 88% of dentists working at health centers and multiple general dentists were secured in five metropolitans/provinces. Conclusions: In the 21st century, the financial and manpower indicators of oral health care in Korea rose significantly, comparable to the six selected countries, although quality limitations remain. In the future, it is expected that these policies in Korea will be enhanced based on the indicators identified in this study.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to show a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension. Methods: This study analyzed data of 6794 adults over 19 years based on results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2016-2018. Complex sample analysis and propensity score matching analysis methods were conducted to determine whether a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension existed. Results: Results of the complex sample logistic regression analysis were: OR=1.4 (95% CI:1.23- 1.58). However, the result of the conditional logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching yielded no correlation between periodontitis and hypertension (OR=1.03 (95% CI:0.92- 1.16)). Conclusions: It is difficult to conclude that a significant correlation exists between hypertension and periodontal disease, and further studies need to be performed to assess a significant correlation.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aims to identify the factors related to the consultation and use of preventive dental services among patients visiting dental clinics. Methods: The self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted among patients in Busan, South Korea, and overall, 319 patients participated in this study, with a response rate of 83.9%. Results: Among the study participants, 74.6% stated that preventive service was necessary and 193 patients (60.5%) agreed to undergo consultation for preventive dental service. Consequently, 66.3% of patients who underwent consultation agreed to participate in preventive dental service. The most popular reason provided to receive this service was “to maintain teeth longer” (72.9%), whereas the common factor for declining was “lack of time” (49.3%). Most people who did not attend the consultation of preventive dental service mentioned that the dental staff “did not recommend the consultation” (43.9%). Logistic regression analysis for the consultation and service use for preventive dental service showed that dental clinics, age, and satisfaction were the most influential factors. Conclusions: Both the characteristics of patients and dental clinics were important factors for people to agree to the consultation and use of preventive dental services. If dental staff launch efforts to improve the quality of service for the satisfaction of patients, it will increase participation in preventive dental services, which could help promote oral health and patients’ quality of life.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to confirm the correlation between BMI and the prevalence of periodontal disease in adults, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: The data included general characteristics and oral examination results of individuals surveyed in the 7th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2016-2018). Among the variables examined, age, gender, education, income, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking/drinking, oral examination, and brushing habits were considered as the general characteristics of the study participants. Individuals with more than 4 mm depth of the periodontal pocket were defined as having periodontal disease. BMI was classified into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) and normal (18.5 kg/m2<BMI). Of the 16,119 persons who completed the health survey, 11,269 were analyzed, excluding those aged below 19 and individuals with missing values. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among men, those who were older, came from a lower socioeconomic background, were obese, and had hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia (P<0.0001). The prevalence of periodontal disease was 1.26 times (95% CI: 1.12-1.40) higher among the obese compared to individuals with a normal BMI, with the incidence being 1.28 times (95% CI: 1.03-1.43) and 1.21 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.49) higher in women and men, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence of periodontal disease was 1.35 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.59) higher among those who were obese than those with normal BMI in individuals above 60 years. Conclusions: Even among the obese, the incidence of periodontal disease differs according to gender and age. Therefore, it is imperative to implement an appropriate oral care program taking the aforementioned characteristics into account.
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Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the factors related to re-visit intentions of patients who had visited the 10 oral health care centers for the disabled currently operating in Korea. Methods: A self-developed questionnaire (29 items) was distributed among 1,000 randomly selected patients and their guardians who had visited one of the 10 oral health care centers for the disabled, with a consent. Consequently, 874 questionnaires were collected and analysed for statistics using SPSS 25.0. Results: The patients traveled a long distance to visit the oral health care centers because of their specialization for the disabled. With the level of satisfaction with dentist services, dental hygienist services, and facilities increasing, the re-visit intention proportionally rose. Conclusions: This study presents basic data that provides information on the operation of 10 oral health care centers for the disabled. It is imperative to develop a more structured questionnaire, and conduct an annual survey of the disabled visiting the centers.
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Dong-Hyeob Woo, Hae-Young You, Min-Ji Kim, Han-Na Kim, Jin-Bom Kim, Seung-Hwa Jeong
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