Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to show a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension. Methods: This study analyzed data of 6794 adults over 19 years based on results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2016-2018. Complex sample analysis and propensity score matching analysis methods were conducted to determine whether a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension existed. Results: Results of the complex sample logistic regression analysis were: OR=1.4 (95% CI:1.23- 1.58). However, the result of the conditional logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching yielded no correlation between periodontitis and hypertension (OR=1.03 (95% CI:0.92- 1.16)). Conclusions: It is difficult to conclude that a significant correlation exists between hypertension and periodontal disease, and further studies need to be performed to assess a significant correlation.
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Abstract : Objectives: The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. Methods: The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). Conclusions: The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.
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Abstract : Objectives: In order to understand the factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life of older adults, we investigated the quality of life, oral health status, and oral health behavior of older adults in a metropolitan city in Korea. Methods: Data were collected from October 2019 to March 2020, after approval was obtained from the authors’ institutional review board. Oral examinations were administered and a structured questionnaire was distributed to 150 older adults at a public nursing home. Data on sociodemographic factors, oral health behaviors, general health questions, and oral health-related quality of life (assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 [OHIP-14]) were collected with the questionnaire. To assess the general health condition of the participants, grip strength and upper arm and calf circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between oral health-related quality of life and other variables. Results: Whether brushing was performed, the number of remaining teeth, and the presence of periodontal disease were found to correlate with OHIP-14 scores (P<0.05). Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores and sociodemographic factors in older adults through multiple logistic regression analyses with general health, oral health habits and conditions, and need for assistance with daily oral health care. Correlations between OHIP-14 scores and general health variables, such as thigh circumference and grip strength, revealed a low oral health-related quality of life in participants who needed help during brushing (P<0.05). Conclusions: Results of the study confirmed a relationship between OHIP-14 scores and oral health and habits among older adults in public nursing homes with socioeconomic status, and general health, and oral health, and each variable affects the relationship. Further analysis and additional epidemiological studies are needed to understand the interrelationships.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aims to identify the factors related to the consultation and use of preventive dental services among patients visiting dental clinics. Methods: The self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted among patients in Busan, South Korea, and overall, 319 patients participated in this study, with a response rate of 83.9%. Results: Among the study participants, 74.6% stated that preventive service was necessary and 193 patients (60.5%) agreed to undergo consultation for preventive dental service. Consequently, 66.3% of patients who underwent consultation agreed to participate in preventive dental service. The most popular reason provided to receive this service was “to maintain teeth longer” (72.9%), whereas the common factor for declining was “lack of time” (49.3%). Most people who did not attend the consultation of preventive dental service mentioned that the dental staff “did not recommend the consultation” (43.9%). Logistic regression analysis for the consultation and service use for preventive dental service showed that dental clinics, age, and satisfaction were the most influential factors. Conclusions: Both the characteristics of patients and dental clinics were important factors for people to agree to the consultation and use of preventive dental services. If dental staff launch efforts to improve the quality of service for the satisfaction of patients, it will increase participation in preventive dental services, which could help promote oral health and patients’ quality of life.
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Abstract : Objectives: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the lifestyle of the public, which also holds true for oral health. This study thus aimed to elucidate the effects of wearing a mask due to COVID-19 on oral health behavior and oral symptoms in young adults from South Korea. Methods: A total of 285 university students (mean age 23.4 years; 64.9% men and 35.1% women) responded to a web-based survey. A paired t-test was conducted to identify changes in oral health behaviors before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The frequency of toothbrushing (P=0.009), dental flossing (P
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in the genotype distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), the main cause of periodontal disease, according to smoking status. Methods: Two hundred thirty adults with periodontal disease were selected as subjects and were classified into either a smoking or non-smoking group. Smoking behavior was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire, and subgingival plaque was collected and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to confirm the P. gingivalis genotype. For statistical analysis, SPSS Ver 25.0 was used. Results: P. gingivalis was expressed in 224 subjects (97.4%), and there was no difference in its expression rate according to smoking. However, there was a significant difference in smoking in type III genotype and smoking period in type II genotype with P. gingivalis (P =0.003). Conclusions: Although smoking was not related to the overall distribution of P. gingivalis, increased volume and duration may inhibit the expression of type II and type III genotypes.
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Abstract : Objectives: With the surge in the elderly population, a growing interest in the prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases has been observed, along with awareness of the severity of problems associated with dementia, a cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between chewing ability and cognitive function among elderly people residing in a rural area. Methods: A total of 162 elderly individuals, aged between 65 and 97 years, were surveyed. Trained examiners conducted interviews and assessments of chewing ability, on the basis of the number of remaining teeth, denture status, masticatory performance evaluating gum, ShadeEye-NCC measuring overall change in color of the gum (ΔE), and T-Scan®III analyzing distribution of occlusion patterns. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) tool. Results: Participants with a low score in the MMSE-DS were found to have distinguishably lower denture need, smaller number of remaining teeth, and lesser color change in the masticatory performance evaluating gum. In the cognitive impairment group, a tendency of having unilateral and anterior occlusion led to occlusal discomfort and chewing difficulties. Conclusions: The study highlights important associations between chewing ability and cognitive function. The finding corroborates that tooth loss may be a predictive risk factor for cognitive impairment.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to confirm the correlation between BMI and the prevalence of periodontal disease in adults, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: The data included general characteristics and oral examination results of individuals surveyed in the 7th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2016-2018). Among the variables examined, age, gender, education, income, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking/drinking, oral examination, and brushing habits were considered as the general characteristics of the study participants. Individuals with more than 4 mm depth of the periodontal pocket were defined as having periodontal disease. BMI was classified into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) and normal (18.5 kg/m2<BMI). Of the 16,119 persons who completed the health survey, 11,269 were analyzed, excluding those aged below 19 and individuals with missing values. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among men, those who were older, came from a lower socioeconomic background, were obese, and had hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia (P<0.0001). The prevalence of periodontal disease was 1.26 times (95% CI: 1.12-1.40) higher among the obese compared to individuals with a normal BMI, with the incidence being 1.28 times (95% CI: 1.03-1.43) and 1.21 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.49) higher in women and men, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence of periodontal disease was 1.35 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.59) higher among those who were obese than those with normal BMI in individuals above 60 years. Conclusions: Even among the obese, the incidence of periodontal disease differs according to gender and age. Therefore, it is imperative to implement an appropriate oral care program taking the aforementioned characteristics into account.
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Dong-Hyeob Woo, Hae-Young You, Min-Ji Kim, Han-Na Kim, Jin-Bom Kim, Seung-Hwa Jeong
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