Abstract : Objectives: One of the main causes of tooth loss in Korea is dental caries, a chronic disease affecting individuals of all ages worldwide. The average decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, a measure of the caries experience of the population, has been stagnating in Korea for a number of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of caries prevalence by tooth type, and to identify the characteristics and risk factors of the specific affected caries (SaC) and significant caries (SiC) groups in Korea’s 12-year-old children. Data were obtained from the 2018 Children’s Oral Health Survey.Methods: Data from a total of 22,303 subjects were included in the study. We grouped the data according to two DMFT-related indices, the SaC index, which includes all subjects who have experienced a carious lesion, and the SiC index, which includes the top one-third of the population by DMFT. We then analyzed the sociodemographic variables and oral health behaviors seen in these groups.Results: The average DMFT index for all the 12-year-old children was 1.89, and that of those in the SaC and SiC groups was 3.37 and 4.86, respectively. The teeth that were found to be most likely to develop caries were the mandibular and maxillary first molars, and the tooth associated with the highest mean DMFT index was the mandibular first premolar. Among the variables analyzed, perceived oral health status was the most influential variable in the SaC and SiC groups, followed by gender, and then the presence or absence of calculus. Household income was not a statistically significant variable.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed the characteristics common to 12-year-old children who are vulnerable to caries. This will provide valuable information when planning dental disease management projects.
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Abstract : Objectives: The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. Methods: The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). Conclusions: The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of preventing dental erosion caused by fermented milk in early carious teeth by applying 0.2% sodium fluoride to the tooth surface and adding 0.5% calcium to the drink.Methods: We selected the experimental drink Yakult, which is the best-selling domestic fermented milk drink. A total of five groups were selected as experimental groups (mineral water, fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+(fermented milk+0.5% Ca), and 0.2% NaF+Distilled water groups). After forming the artificial early caries, the pH cycling was administered for five days to derive surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image results.Results: When comparing the surface microhardness before and after treatment in each group, significant differences were found among the four groups (P0.05). A comparison of the difference in surface microhardness before and after pH cycling among the groups revealed a significant difference (P0.05). The 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups showed significant differences from the other groups (P0.05) showed smoother surfaces than the 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups.Conclusions: Based on these results, it was confirmed that if 0.5% calcium was included in the fermented milk along with the fluoride mouth rinsing program in schools using 0.2% fluoride every week when drinking fermented milk, it is possible to effectively prevent dental erosion even in early carious teeth.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to show a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension. Methods: This study analyzed data of 6794 adults over 19 years based on results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2016-2018. Complex sample analysis and propensity score matching analysis methods were conducted to determine whether a correlation between periodontal disease and hypertension existed. Results: Results of the complex sample logistic regression analysis were: OR=1.4 (95% CI:1.23- 1.58). However, the result of the conditional logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching yielded no correlation between periodontitis and hypertension (OR=1.03 (95% CI:0.92- 1.16)). Conclusions: It is difficult to conclude that a significant correlation exists between hypertension and periodontal disease, and further studies need to be performed to assess a significant correlation.
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Abstract : Objectives: In this study, I aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of bile acids on the inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells activated through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.Methods: Myelomonocytic RAW 264.7 cells were activated through P. gingivalis LPS to induce inflammatory response, and were treated with three bile acids, including taurodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and glycocholate at different concentrations. The cytotoxicity of bile acids was assessed through the MTT assay. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of bile acids on inflammatory response, the induction levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using ELISA 12 h after the treatment. Additionally, after activating the cells with RANKL to promote osteoclastogenesis, we examined whether bile acids suppressed osteoclast differentiation using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining.Results: In the cell viability test, taurodeoxycholate and taurocholate did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations equal to or less than 200 µM, and glycocholate was non-cytotoxic until the maximal concentration (4,000 µM). All the three bile acids exhibited an inhibitory effect on inflammatory response, as the production levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased with an increase in the concentration of the three bile acids in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of IL-6 reduced remarkably upon treatment with taurodeoxycholate and glycocholate (P<0.001), while the expression of TNF-α decreased slightly upon treatment with glycocholate (P<0.05). Moreover, only glycocholate at a concentration of 1,000 µM suppressed osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.001), while taurodeoxycholate and taurocholate did not exhibit an inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis.Conclusions: Here, I showed that all the three bile acids (taurodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and glycocholate) inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammatory response, and glycocholate partially suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells.
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Abstract : Objectives: Periodontitis-causing microorganisms and their virulence factors can provoke periodontal destruction in the host. This study was aimed at evaluating the distribution of periodontal disease and its relationship with 11 periodontal disease-causing bacteria in the elderly.Methods: Individuals aged 60 years or above were recruited after obtaining informed consent. The clinical attachment loss was measured at studied sites to determine the severity of periodontitis. Further, the stimulated salivary samples were collected and analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect 11 strains of periodontitis-causing bacteria.Results: The severity of periodontal disease was proportional to the amount of periodontal disease-causing bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis in the red complex increased from 6.60±5.50 in stage 1 to 5.36±5.39 in stage 2 and 7.19±5.56 in stage 3 (P=0.003). Tannerella forsythia increased from 6.54±4.60 in stage 1 to 7.44±4.56 in stage 2 and 8.49±4.70 in stage 3 (P=0.007).Conclusions: The presence of complex bacterial groups and their number of strains were high in participants with severe periodontitis. Controlling periodontitis-related bacteria is important for periodontal health in the elderly.
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Abstract : Objectives: Previous studies have suggested that the lactic acid bacterium, Weissella cibaria CMU has beneficial effects on halitosis, but its precise effects have not been evaluated in human subjects. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of W. cibaria CMU for reducing halitosis in adults (20-70 years old) whose exhibited volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentrations exceeded 0.015 ng/mL and who scored ≥2 points in a halitosis sensory evaluation test.Methods: A total of 60 participants were assigned to an experimental group (treated with W. cibaria CMU) and a control group (placebo). In total, 58 out of 60 participants (experimental group, 29; control group, 29) were ultimately included in gas chromatography (OralChroma) analyses of VSC concentrations and halitosis sensory evaluation tests.Results: We found that the VSC concentration decreased by 0.030±0.062 ng/ml in the experimental group after 8 weeks (P=0.0138) and increased by 0.005±0.124 ng/ml in the control group (P=0.8198). However, the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In a sensory evaluation test, a significantly lower score was obtained for the experimental group than for the control group.Conclusions: Overall, VSC concentrations and sensory evaluation scores were lower in the experimental group than in the control group, but only the latter was statistically significant. Thus, we conclude that W. cibaria CMU is involved in the reduction of halitosis.
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Abstract : Objectives: The water fluoridation program in Hapcheon township area has been implemented since 2000. This study aimed to evaluate the caries-preventive effect of water fluoridation on permanent teeth after implementation of an 18-year community water fluoridation program in a suburban area.Methods: A survey was conducted in 2018 with 359 subjects, aged 8, 10, and 12 years, residing in the Hapcheon township area. In this prospective cohort study, the data on caries prevalence obtained from 671 subjects, aged 8, 10, and 12 years, in 2000, when the community water fluoridation program was initiated in the township, were used as a cohort to evaluate the caries-preventive effect after 18 years. The caries-preventive effect of community water fluoridation on permanent teeth was estimated by comparison of the adjusted DMFT scores between the program and the control group, and between the pre- and post-program data after 18 years. The confounding factor, mean number of fissure-sealed teeth, was adjusted to estimate the caries-preventive effect of fluoridation on permanent teeth.Results: Based on the results of the surveys conducted in Hapcheon-eup in 2000 and 2018, the mean number of fissure-sealed permanent teeth was 2.24 in 2000 and 1.38 in 2018. The mean DMFT scores of subjects aged 8, 10, and 12 years in 2018, adjusted for fissure-sealed permanent teeth in the fluoridated area, were significantly lower than those reported by the 2018 Korea National Children’s Oral Health Survey. In addition, the mean values of the adjusted DMFT scores of subjects aged 8, 10, and 12 years in 2018, after the 18-year fluoridation program, were significantly lower than those reported in 2000, the year the fluoridation program was initiated.Conclusions: Community water fluoridation has a high caries-reducing effect; thus, the reintroduction of water fluoridation program is desirable to prevent dental caries.
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Abstract : Objectives: In order to understand the factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life of older adults, we investigated the quality of life, oral health status, and oral health behavior of older adults in a metropolitan city in Korea. Methods: Data were collected from October 2019 to March 2020, after approval was obtained from the authors’ institutional review board. Oral examinations were administered and a structured questionnaire was distributed to 150 older adults at a public nursing home. Data on sociodemographic factors, oral health behaviors, general health questions, and oral health-related quality of life (assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 [OHIP-14]) were collected with the questionnaire. To assess the general health condition of the participants, grip strength and upper arm and calf circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between oral health-related quality of life and other variables. Results: Whether brushing was performed, the number of remaining teeth, and the presence of periodontal disease were found to correlate with OHIP-14 scores (P<0.05). Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores and sociodemographic factors in older adults through multiple logistic regression analyses with general health, oral health habits and conditions, and need for assistance with daily oral health care. Correlations between OHIP-14 scores and general health variables, such as thigh circumference and grip strength, revealed a low oral health-related quality of life in participants who needed help during brushing (P<0.05). Conclusions: Results of the study confirmed a relationship between OHIP-14 scores and oral health and habits among older adults in public nursing homes with socioeconomic status, and general health, and oral health, and each variable affects the relationship. Further analysis and additional epidemiological studies are needed to understand the interrelationships.
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Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial effect of mastic oil on a representative caries-inducing bacterium, Streptococcus mutans.Methods: S. mutans UA159 was maintained in a BHI medium containing 0.1% sugar at 37℃ and 10% CO2. Strains were treated with six different concentrations of mastic oil (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%). After incubation for 16 h, the antibacterial effect was evaluated by measuring the optical density (OD) and observing the colony-forming unit. A microtiter plate assay was performed to analyze the anti-adhesion ability of mastic oil on S. mutans.Results: More than 0.1% of mastic oil inhibited the growth of S. mutans. In addition, 0.4% mastic oil exterminated S. mutans. Mastic oil induced an anti-adhesive ability in S. mutans.Conclusions: These results suggest that mastic oil may be used as a preventive measure against dental caries.
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