Abstract : Objectives: One of the main causes of tooth loss in Korea is dental caries, a chronic disease affecting individuals of all ages worldwide. The average decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, a measure of the caries experience of the population, has been stagnating in Korea for a number of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of caries prevalence by tooth type, and to identify the characteristics and risk factors of the specific affected caries (SaC) and significant caries (SiC) groups in Korea’s 12-year-old children. Data were obtained from the 2018 Children’s Oral Health Survey.Methods: Data from a total of 22,303 subjects were included in the study. We grouped the data according to two DMFT-related indices, the SaC index, which includes all subjects who have experienced a carious lesion, and the SiC index, which includes the top one-third of the population by DMFT. We then analyzed the sociodemographic variables and oral health behaviors seen in these groups.Results: The average DMFT index for all the 12-year-old children was 1.89, and that of those in the SaC and SiC groups was 3.37 and 4.86, respectively. The teeth that were found to be most likely to develop caries were the mandibular and maxillary first molars, and the tooth associated with the highest mean DMFT index was the mandibular first premolar. Among the variables analyzed, perceived oral health status was the most influential variable in the SaC and SiC groups, followed by gender, and then the presence or absence of calculus. Household income was not a statistically significant variable.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed the characteristics common to 12-year-old children who are vulnerable to caries. This will provide valuable information when planning dental disease management projects.
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Abstract : Objectives: We evaluated the level of oral health status and oral health behavior in the elderly prior to their participation in a visiting oral health care intervention program as part of a community healthcare project in Cheonan city, South Korea. Methods: The oral hygiene conditions, oral health behaviors, and oral senility of 64 elderly people subject to community care were measured during the period January 1 to February 15, 2020 using dental health surveys and questionnaire-based interviews conducted in line with World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: The systematic disease retention rate of the elderly in this study was 90.6%, followed by hypertention (70.7%), and diabetes (51.7%). Scores were 1.69 out of 5 for subjective health evaluation, 1.8 out of 5 for subjective awareness of oral health, and the number of natural teeth was 14.9 per person (average mean for elderly people 18.38-19.34). During the day, 94.9% practiced brushing, after dinner 58.9%, and before bedtime 26.8%, which shows a diminished rate of practice. The percentage of participants dissatisfied with dental treatment was high at 67.2%, and the six measures of oral sensitivity, masticatory discomfort, pronunciation discomfort, and tongue pressure, presented less than average scores. Conclusions: The level of oral health and oral health behavior of the elderly prior to the visiting oral health care community intervention program, was very poor. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that there is a need to develop a more systematic and thorough strategy to activate visiting community oral health care intervention programs.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze dental caries and periodontal diseases in Korean adults depending on types of national health insurance, using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ). Methods: From 2016 to 2018, the final analysis included a total of 12,601 adults over 19 years of age, who had undergone dental inspections for dental caries and periodontitis, and whose national health insurance was verified. Results: Among all the subjects, the ratio of employees was highest (67.4%), followed by the self-employed (39.4%), and then medical care recipients (3.3%). The prevalence of dental caries and periodontitis was 93.0% and 30.5%, respectively, among all subjects. The former was highest for medical aid recipients (95.9%), followed by employees (93.1%), and was lowest for the self-employed (92.2%) (P<0.001). The latter was highest for medical aid recipients (40.7%), followed by the self-employed (35.9%), and was lowest for employees (27.7%) (P<0.001). The prevalence of dental caries in the self-employed group was significantly lower (0.52 times) than that of medical care recipients (95% CI: 0.28-0.94), while no significant difference was seen between the latter and employees. There were also no significant differences among them, depending on the types of national health insurance and periodontitis. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop oral health promotion programs that are not biased toward specific types of health insurance subscriptions, and to establish a business plan for oral prevention of subscribers of medical benefits.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations between general health status, oral health behavior, oral health status, and quality of life, as well as the mediating effects of oral health behavior and oral health status. Methods: Subjects aged ≥19 years participated in a health questionnaire in the third year of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015). Results: Analysis of the overall path of periodontal disease showed that respiratory and circulatory diseases and oral health behaviors had statistically significant indirect effects on quality of life through the mediation of oral health behavior and oral health conditions, while analysis of the overall trend of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index showed significant indirect effects on quality of life through mediation between oral and oral health conditions. As a result of these analyses, the association of general health status with quality of life, and its effect thereon, were confirmed through the intermediary of oral health behaviors and oral health conditions. Conclusions: Therefore, further research is needed on the relation of general diseases to oral health management. Special oral health departments need to be established in both general and university hospitals, and dental hygienists in charge of oral care need to be deployed to improve oral health for general diseases. Manuals and systems for oral health management and oral health promotion need to be developed for certified dental hygienists in Japan, specifically for each systemic disease. For example, hygienists should have guidance on the oral health practices that help in the prevention of diabetes.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the number of present teeth in a Korean adult population. Methods: We analyzed the effect of the components of metabolic syndrome in adults aged older than 45 years on the number of present teeth using raw data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2013-2015). For the data analysis, complex samples multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed by correcting the disturbance variables as demographic and socioeconomic variables (gender, age, education level, household income, residential area, family type, and economic activity) and oral health-related behavioral variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing frequency, interdental tooth brushing, flossing, and dental checkups). Results: On analyzing the association between the effects of metabolic syndrome components on less than 20 present teeth by adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables and correcting for both general characteristics and oral health-related behavioral variables, the risk of having less than 20 present teeth was 1.25 times (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.46) higher in the high fasting glucose group compared to that in the non-high fasting glucose group. Metabolic syndrome composed of three or more components was significantly associated with less than 20 present teeth. Conclusions: It is necessary to continuously educate Korean adults about oral health behavior. Appropriate interventional programs to prevent oral disease should be provided when patients with metabolic syndrome visit dental clinics and public health centers.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to compare the results of conventional methodology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for acid-producing bacteria and identify the appropriate method for caries activity testing. Methods: Oral examination and caries activity tests, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, were conducted on 33 middle school students in Cheongju, South Korea. Pearson correlation analysis was subsequently performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using the CRT® Bacteria test was highly correlated with the decayed teeth (DT) index (R=0.570, P<0.05); decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (R=0.376, P<0.05); and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.395, P<0.05). The amount of Streptococcus mutans determined using real-time PCR was significantly associated with the DT index (R=0.528, P<0.05), DMFT index (R=0.369, P<0.05), and dental health capacity of the first permanent molar (R=―0.426, P =0.013). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the amount and the type of bacteria between the CRT® Bacteria test and real-time PCR; therefore, these tests were found to be more appropriate to determine caries activity than the modified Snyder test. This study suggests that realtime PCR is a better technique for detecting caries activities than conventional techniques, such as the CRT® Bacteria test and modified Snyder test, because it is easy to use and provides accurate results.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the perception and needs of the caregivers of infants and children regarding oral health screening in order to identify the problems and the improvements required to increase their satisfaction with the oral health screening system. Methods: An online self-reported survey for the national oral health screening system was conducted for 200 parents raising infants and children in Seoul and the metropolitan area of Korea. The questionnaire for caregivers recorded their thoughts on the current problems, the improvements required in oral health screening, the necessity of screening, and the need for oral h ealth education. Results: The caregivers proposed many requests for precise examination and detailed explanation in the infants and children’s oral health screening and inclusion of simple preventive treatment measures during the screening. Although most parents (94.9%) recognized the necessity of oral checkups for their children, only 76.1% went ahead with the screening. The main reason for screening was prevention and early detection of dental caries. Regarding the need for education, the proportion of respondents receiving oral health education (43.1%) was lower than that of oral health screening (76.1%), even if oral health education and counseling were provided during the screening. The caregivers wanted to learn about the correct tooth brushing methods, causes and prevention of tooth decay, fluoride application, and preferred education methods such as hands-on training, education by dental experts, or visualization. Conclusions: Understanding the perception and needs of caregivers regarding the infants and children’s oral health screening would contribute to improvements in the oral health screening system, thereby increasing their satisfaction.
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Abstract : Objectives: The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. Methods: The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). Conclusions: The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.
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Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of preventing dental erosion caused by fermented milk in early carious teeth by applying 0.2% sodium fluoride to the tooth surface and adding 0.5% calcium to the drink.Methods: We selected the experimental drink Yakult, which is the best-selling domestic fermented milk drink. A total of five groups were selected as experimental groups (mineral water, fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+fermented milk, 0.2% NaF+(fermented milk+0.5% Ca), and 0.2% NaF+Distilled water groups). After forming the artificial early caries, the pH cycling was administered for five days to derive surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image results.Results: When comparing the surface microhardness before and after treatment in each group, significant differences were found among the four groups (P0.05). A comparison of the difference in surface microhardness before and after pH cycling among the groups revealed a significant difference (P0.05). The 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups showed significant differences from the other groups (P0.05) showed smoother surfaces than the 0.2% NaF+fermented milk and fermented milk groups.Conclusions: Based on these results, it was confirmed that if 0.5% calcium was included in the fermented milk along with the fluoride mouth rinsing program in schools using 0.2% fluoride every week when drinking fermented milk, it is possible to effectively prevent dental erosion even in early carious teeth.
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Abstract : Objectives: This study investigated the contents and structure of chapters on oral health to determine the quality of middle and high school health textbooks. We also comparatively analyzed the learning objectives of these textbooks according to the oral health curriculum proposed by the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) and South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE). Methods: The structure and educational contents of eight health textbooks (middle school, five; high school, three) published in 2019 were analyzed methodologically. We compared the structure and contents between the middle and high school curricula. We also carried out comparisons among five publishing companies. Results: Of the eight health textbooks examined, five (middle school, four; high school, one) had chapters on oral health. In terms of structure, textbooks published by company A had the lowest percentage (0.96%) of pages on oral health. The highest percentage (1.50%) was found in a middle school textbook published by company D. We noted subject-level differences between the curriculum proposed by VDH, SCDE, and that of the published textbooks. There were more keywords pertaining to the definition and development of oral diseases than those for its prevention and management. Conclusions: It is critically important to impart oral health education to middle and high school students for self-management of oral health during adolescence, a period characterized by both rapid physical and psychological development. Therefore, we recommend that all health textbooks should include chapters on oral health. Further, in the health textbooks that already include oral health information, we propose that the revised curricula should include key learning objectives.
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