JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    The financial estimate of dental implant treatment about the National Health Insurance coverage for the Korean young adults

    Jin-Sun Choi , Deuk-Sang Ma

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review the condition of young adults’ teeth loss and dental prostheses and obtain the financial estimate which was needed for National Health Insurance Coverage for Korean young adults’ dental implant treatment. Methods: This study analyzed young adults between 20 years and 29 years old using the data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The KNHANES data were used to generate indicators related to teeth loss and dental prostheses. In addition, this study estimated the financial data of dental implants for young adults by using the number of population covered by National Health Insurance, the number of dental implants insurance fee, and the number of dental teeth loss per person. Results: Korean young adults have 20.4% of tooth loss holders and 2.1% of them require a tooth extraction. Also, dental implant holders were 2.3%. The estimated finance of dental implant treatment for the Korean young adults was confirmed from a minimum of 55.9 billion to a maximum of 233.0 billion. Conclusions: In order to prevent early deterioration of oral health due to teeth loss held by young adults, attention is needed to the National health insurance coverage of implant for young adults.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Clinical oral health and adult perceptions of oral health in a dental hospital in Gwangju, Korea

    Byoungjin Lee , Seunghee Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The purposes of the present study were to (1) analyze the relationship between clinical oral health status and subjective oral health status, (2) explore the association between perceived oral symptoms and subjective oral health status, and (3) investigate the effects of factors on subjective oral health status. Methods: A total of 771 subjects, aged over 35 years of age, from a dental hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city, were surveyed cross-sectionally using a self-report questionnaire. We investigated the relationship of subjective oral health status with clinical oral health status, and with perceived oral symptoms using a Chi-squared test (P<0.05). To investigate the effects of factors on subjective oral health status relationship, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The odds ratios of subjective oral health status between ‘Bad’ vs ‘Good’ were as follows: frequent oral concern, 43.41; occasional oral concern, 2.94; toothache, 6.08; hypersensitivity to coldness, 2.13; 1-3 year’s periodic preventive oral care, 0.19; 4-7 and periodic preventive oral care, 0.14. Conclusions: Periodic preventive oral care appears to be associated with self-rated subjective oral health status.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Determination of the infection rate of dental caries-causing bacteria in adolescents by a real-time PCR test method

    Ye-Rim Mun , Ji-Hyeon Park , Ja-Won Cho , Woo-Ram Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the infection rates of bacteria associated with dental caries among children and adolescents in Korea. Methods: Oral examinations were conducted in 146 students. The numbers of bacteria associated with dental caries, such as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Lactobacillus casei, in the subjects’ oral cavity were counted by real-time PCR, and infection rates for those bacteria were additionally investigated. Results: The infection rate of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Lactobacillus casei was 99.3% (145/146), 63.0% (92/146), 1.4% (2/146), and 25.3% (37/146), respectively. The amounts of Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei did not differ with the participants’ age. However, the number of Streptococcus mutans was 537.6 for primary school students, 5698.2 for middle school students, and 19037.5 for high school students. The mean number of oral bacteria increased with age (P<0.05). The mean bacterial numbers of the infected subjects indicated significant differences in the numbers of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans (P<0.05). Conclusions: The infection rates of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans were distinct in children and adolescents. Efforts to control the bacteria associated with dental caries are needed to prevent dental caries.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Effectiveness of mentha extracts against oral microorganisms: an in vitro study

    Byul Bo Ra Choi , Se Eun Yun , Sang Rye Park , Gyoo Cheon Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal disease are infectious and chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of mentha extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Methods: This activity of mentha extracts were confirmed by the disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and colony forming unit (CFU) assays. Results: S. mutans and P. gingivalis showed the highest antimicrobial activity within the inhibition zones. The antimicrobial activity was interrupted as the MIC and MBC of the herbal extracts against the two bacteria were 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial effect was determined by the CFU assay. Conclusions: Mentha herb extract demonstrated potential antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and P. gingivalis that cause dental caries and periodontal disease.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Relationship of loneliness and subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly

    Hye-Kyong Cho , Yun-Sook Jung , Hyo-Jin Heo , Yoo-Sik Youm , Keun-Bae Song , Youn-Hee Choi

    Abstract : Objectives: Loneliness was associated with not only social status but also general health. Psychological conditions in older people have negative effects on general health and oral health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between loneliness and subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) for the questionnaire, UCLA loneliness scale data of 1,511 older adults living in a rural community. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the relevance of subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly according to the level of loneliness. Results: According to the final model that after adjustment for other risk factors (age, gender, level of education, smoking, drinking, etc.), in the elderly who rarely feel loneliness group compared to the elderly who never feel loneliness was Odds ratio (OR) 1.256 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.99-1.60) and sometimes+often feel loneliness was OR 2.110 (95% CI: 1.39-3.21). Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with subjective chewing discomfort in the elderly. Older people feeling loneliness are likely to have more subjective chewing discomfort.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Preliminary study for the development of a visiting oral health care intervention program for the elderly based on community healthcare

    Jong-Hwa Jang , Ja-Won Cho , Yeo-Ju Kim , Ji-Yun Ki , Kyung-Sook Jo , Ji-Ryang Kim , Jung-Eun Park , Da-Hui Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: We evaluated the level of oral health status and oral health behavior in the elderly prior to their participation in a visiting oral health care intervention program as part of a community healthcare project in Cheonan city, South Korea. Methods: The oral hygiene conditions, oral health behaviors, and oral senility of 64 elderly people subject to community care were measured during the period January 1 to February 15, 2020 using dental health surveys and questionnaire-based interviews conducted in line with World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: The systematic disease retention rate of the elderly in this study was 90.6%, followed by hypertention (70.7%), and diabetes (51.7%). Scores were 1.69 out of 5 for subjective health evaluation, 1.8 out of 5 for subjective awareness of oral health, and the number of natural teeth was 14.9 per person (average mean for elderly people 18.38-19.34). During the day, 94.9% practiced brushing, after dinner 58.9%, and before bedtime 26.8%, which shows a diminished rate of practice. The percentage of participants dissatisfied with dental treatment was high at 67.2%, and the six measures of oral sensitivity, masticatory discomfort, pronunciation discomfort, and tongue pressure, presented less than average scores. Conclusions: The level of oral health and oral health behavior of the elderly prior to the visiting oral health care community intervention program, was very poor. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that there is a need to develop a more systematic and thorough strategy to activate visiting community oral health care intervention programs.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    The effect of general health status, oral health behavior and status on quality of life in Korea adults

    Ho Jin Jeong , Ye Hwang Kim , Jung Won Yun , Sang Hwan Oh , Hyun Seo Yoon , Min Kyung Lee , Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations between general health status, oral health behavior, oral health status, and quality of life, as well as the mediating effects of oral health behavior and oral health status. Methods: Subjects aged ≥19 years participated in a health questionnaire in the third year of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015). Results: Analysis of the overall path of periodontal disease showed that respiratory and circulatory diseases and oral health behaviors had statistically significant indirect effects on quality of life through the mediation of oral health behavior and oral health conditions, while analysis of the overall trend of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index showed significant indirect effects on quality of life through mediation between oral and oral health conditions. As a result of these analyses, the association of general health status with quality of life, and its effect thereon, were confirmed through the intermediary of oral health behaviors and oral health conditions. Conclusions: Therefore, further research is needed on the relation of general diseases to oral health management. Special oral health departments need to be established in both general and university hospitals, and dental hygienists in charge of oral care need to be deployed to improve oral health for general diseases. Manuals and systems for oral health management and oral health promotion need to be developed for certified dental hygienists in Japan, specifically for each systemic disease. For example, hygienists should have guidance on the oral health practices that help in the prevention of diabetes.

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  • Original Article 2020-06-30

    Analysis of the difference between regions of frequency of scaling and denture use in the elderly and related factors at the regional level

    Jin-Sun Choi , Se-Hwan Jung

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identify the differences in frequency of use between regions and analyze the association with relevant factors at the regional level since the expansion of the National Health Insurance benefits for scaling and dentures in the elderly. Methods: Data were provided by the National Health Insurance Service and the Korean Statistical Information Service. The dependent variables used were the frequency of scaling per 100 and dentures per 1,000 elderly people in cities, counties, and districts. The independent variables used were dental resources variables, health related behaviors and quality of life variables, and infrastructurerelated variables. The analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 or STATA 13.0 statistical packages. Results: The annual use frequency of scaling per 100 elderly people was higher in the city or district regions than in the county regions. The frequency of denture use per 1,000 elderly people was lower in the city or district regions than in the county regions. In addition, the frequency of scaling and denture use was statistically significant in terms of the number of dentists per 10,000 population, number of dental hygienists per 10,000 population, number of dental institutions per 10,000 population, brushing after lunch rate, healthy living practice rate, nutrition label reading rate and welfare budget among general budgets rate and traffic index, where scaling showed a positive relationship and dentures showed a negative relationship. However, in terms of frequency of denture use, there was a statistically significant positive correlation in the chewing difficulty complaint rate. Conclusions: Despite the health insurance benefits, there were differences between regions in scaling and denture use in the elderly. In terms of the use of scaling, it could be interpreted that the association between health behavior factors at the regional level, infrastructure-related factors, and the use of dentures was due to the poor economic situation of the elderly in the countryside along with the number of dental institutions clustered in the city.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    Oral health status depending on the type of national health insurance: the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ)

    Da-Hui Kim , Mi-Hyun Choi , Hye-Jin Lee , Hee-Hong Min , Young-Suk Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze dental caries and periodontal diseases in Korean adults depending on types of national health insurance, using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ). Methods: From 2016 to 2018, the final analysis included a total of 12,601 adults over 19 years of age, who had undergone dental inspections for dental caries and periodontitis, and whose national health insurance was verified. Results: Among all the subjects, the ratio of employees was highest (67.4%), followed by the self-employed (39.4%), and then medical care recipients (3.3%). The prevalence of dental caries and periodontitis was 93.0% and 30.5%, respectively, among all subjects. The former was highest for medical aid recipients (95.9%), followed by employees (93.1%), and was lowest for the self-employed (92.2%) (P<0.001). The latter was highest for medical aid recipients (40.7%), followed by the self-employed (35.9%), and was lowest for employees (27.7%) (P<0.001). The prevalence of dental caries in the self-employed group was significantly lower (0.52 times) than that of medical care recipients (95% CI: 0.28-0.94), while no significant difference was seen between the latter and employees. There were also no significant differences among them, depending on the types of national health insurance and periodontitis. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop oral health promotion programs that are not biased toward specific types of health insurance subscriptions, and to establish a business plan for oral prevention of subscribers of medical benefits.

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  • Original Article 2020-09-30

    The relationship between metabolic syndrome components and the number of remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the number of present teeth in a Korean adult population. Methods: We analyzed the effect of the components of metabolic syndrome in adults aged older than 45 years on the number of present teeth using raw data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey (2013-2015). For the data analysis, complex samples multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed by correcting the disturbance variables as demographic and socioeconomic variables (gender, age, education level, household income, residential area, family type, and economic activity) and oral health-related behavioral variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing frequency, interdental tooth brushing, flossing, and dental checkups). Results: On analyzing the association between the effects of metabolic syndrome components on less than 20 present teeth by adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables and correcting for both general characteristics and oral health-related behavioral variables, the risk of having less than 20 present teeth was 1.25 times (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.46) higher in the high fasting glucose group compared to that in the non-high fasting glucose group. Metabolic syndrome composed of three or more components was significantly associated with less than 20 present teeth. Conclusions: It is necessary to continuously educate Korean adults about oral health behavior. Appropriate interventional programs to prevent oral disease should be provided when patients with metabolic syndrome visit dental clinics and public health centers.

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September, 2021
Vol.45 No.3

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784