JKAOH Journal of Korean Acadomy of Oral Health
pISSN 1225-388X eISSN 2093-7784

Table. 2.

Affecting factor of the unmet needs of dental care service by age group: Multilevel analysis

Division Overall (T1) Availability (a) Economic accessibility (b) Acceptability (c)




Middle-aged Elderly-aged Middle-aged Elderly-aged Middle-aged Elderly-aged Middle-aged Elderly-aged








OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Level 1. Individual factors
Gender Female (ref. Male) 1.17 1.13-1.22 1.24 1.17-1.31 1.13 0.95-1.35 1.03 0.94-1.12 0.94 0.87-1.03 1.22 1.17-1.28 1.44 1.34-1.55
Education level Elementary school (ref. unschooled) 0.94 0.82-1.08 1.02 0.96-1.08 0.66 0.42-1.03 0.83 0.67-1.02 0.91 0.83-0.99 1.15 0.97-1.37 1.19 1.10-1.29
Middle school 0.95 0.83-1.09 1.02 0.94-1.11 0.72 0.46-1.13 0.82 0.66-1.00 0.89 0.79-1.02 1.17 0.98-1.38 1.22 1.10-1.36
High school 1.02 0.90-1.17 1.03 0.94-1.12 0.88 0.58-1.35 0.77 0.63-0.93 0.74 0.64-0.85 1.30 1.10-1.54 1.32 1.18-1.48
Bachelor’s degree or higher 1.02 0.89-1.18 1.02 0.89-1.17 0.78 0.49-1.24 0.66 0.53-0.82 0.66 0.51-0.84 1.35 1.14-1.61 1.36 1.15-1.60
Economic activity status Active (ref. none) 0.85 0.63-1.13 1.21 0.76-1.92 0.47 0.15-1.47 1.11 0.60-2.04 0.97 0.47-2.00 0.89 0.64-1.23 1.50 0.83-2.73
Occupation Clerical work (ref. professional & menager) 0.99 0.91-1.07 1.54 0.95-2.50 0.77 0.51-1.17 0.88 0.68-1.16 1.54 0.53-4.51 1.00 0.92-1.09 1.62 0.96-2.73
Sales service position 1.10 1.03-1.19 1.64 1.23-2.18 0.97 0.68-1.37 1.45 1.18-1.78 1.49 0.80-2.79 1.08 1.00-1.17 1.75 1.26-2.41
Agriculture, forestry and fishery 0.96 0.88-1.05 1.31 0.99-1.73 1.11 0.77-1.61 1.16 0.92-1.47 1.18 0.65-2.14 1.00 0.91-1.10 1.50 1.10-2.05
Functional simple labors 1.08 1.01-1.16 1.50 1.14-1.97 0.79 0.56-1.12 1.69 1.39-2.05 2.04 1.13-3.71 1.04 0.96-1.12 1.43 1.04-1.95
Others 0.66 0.49-0.88 1.36 0.81-2.31 0.60 0.19-1.93 1.90 1.01-3.56 1.56 0.62-3.91 0.56 0.40-0.77 1.41 0.73-2.72
Activity restriction Active (ref. none) 1.31 1.21-1.42 1.39 1.32-1.47 1.69 1.31-2.19 1.43 1.26-1.61 1.36 1.26-1.47 1.03 0.94-1.14 1.12 1.04-1.20
Perceived oral health Average (ref. good) 0.37 0.35-0.39 0.60 0.54-0.67 0.40 0.29-0.55 0.38 0.31-0.47 0.59 0.46-0.74 0.37 0.35-0.40 0.59 0.52-0.67
Poor 2.03 1.94-2.11 1.47 1.38-1.57 1.75 1.45-2.12 2.61 2.36-2.89 2.01 1.79-2.26 1.80 1.72-1.88 1.20 1.11-1.30
Chewing difficulty Yes (ref. no) 2.52 2.40-2.63 3.17 3.00-3.35 1.52 1.26-1.85 3.66 3.35-4.01 3.68 3.34-4.06 1.92 1.83-2.02 2.47 2.30-2.66
Level 2. Household factors
Monthly household income (unit. 10,000) ≥100-200 (ref. ≥100) 0.86 0.79-0.93 0.88 0.82-0.93 0.86 0.64-1.15 0.73 0.64-0.83 0.72 0.65-0.79 1.08 0.97-1.20 1.12 1.03-1.21
≥200-300 0.84 0.77-0.91 0.81 0.75-0.88 0.71 0.52-0.98 0.54 0.47-0.62 0.43 0.37-0.50 1.23 1.11-1.36 1.29 1.16-1.43
≥300-400 0.82 0.75-0.89 0.80 0.72-0.89 0.93 0.67-1.28 0.40 0.34-0.46 0.35 0.29-0.43 1.27 1.15-1.42 1.33 1.17-1.52
≤400 0.77 0.71-0.84 0.74 0.66-0.82 0.71 0.52-0.98 0.23 0.19-0.26 0.28 0.24-0.34 1.32 1.19-1.46 1.34 1.18-1.53
Marital status Divorced∙widowed∙separation (ref. married) 1.18 1.11-1.26 0.96 0.89-1.04 1.07 0.83-1.39 1.67 1.49-1.86 1.32 1.17-1.48 1.01 0.94-1.08 0.76 0.68-0.84
Single 1.23 1.14-1.33 1.65 1.24-2.20 1.58 1.17-2.13 1.51 1.31-1.75 2.95 2.04-4.28 1.07 0.98-1.18 0.96 0.63-1.46
Single-person household status Yes (ref. no) 1.09 1.01-1.17 1.15 1.06-1.26 1.06 0.79-1.42 0.89 0.78-1.02 0.81 0.71-0.92 1.14 1.05-1.24 1.38 1.23-1.55
Children living together number of household Yes (ref. no) 1.25 1.19-1.31 1.14 1.05-1.25 1.00 0.82-1.22 1.24 1.12-1.38 1.24 1.09-1.42 1.22 1.16-1.28 1.10 0.98-1.24
Number of household members over 19 years old 3-5 (ref. 1-2) 0.94 0.90-0.98 1.02 0.94-1.11 1.07 0.83-1.39 1.10 0.99-1.21 1.30 1.14-1.48 0.92 0.80-1.51 0.92 0.82-1.03
≤6 1.22 0.90-1.64 0.87 0.55-1.39 1.58 0.08-3.99 2.14 1.13-4.05 1.38 0.67-2.84 1.10 0.92-1.11 0.69 0.37-1.29
Level 3. Regional factors
Fiscal independence rations Low (ref. high) 0.96 0.87-1.05 0.87 0.76-0.98 1.18 0.90-1.55 0.73 0.63-0.85 0.72 0.61-0.86 1.01 0.92-1.11 0.96 0.84-1.09
Basic living supply and demand rate Low (ref. high) 0.95 0.87-1.03 0.99 0.88-1.10 1.05 0.84-1.32 0.93 0.81-1.06 0.98 0.84-1.14 0.96 0.88-1.04 0.98 0.88-1.09
No. of dental offce (unit. 100,000) Q3 (ref. Q4) 0.97 0.82-1.16 1.00 0.80-1.26 3.02 1.86-4.89 0.68 0.52-0.90 0.74 0.54-1.02 0.99 0.84-1.17 1.02 0.81-1.28
Q2 1.03 0.87-1.22 1.08 0.86-1.35 2.19 1.36-3.52 0.80 0.62-1.04 0.81 0.59-1.10 1.04 0.89-1.23 1.16 0.93-1.45
Q1 (low) 1.06 0.91-1.24 1.03 0.84-1.26 1.75 1.12-2.73 0.91 0.72-1.16 0.89 0.67-1.17 1.06 0.92-1.22 1.07 0.88-1.32
No. of dentist (unit. 10,000) Q3 (ref. Q4) 0.95 0.81-1.12 0.93 0.75-1.14 0.75 0.48-1.16 0.81 0.63-1.04 0.75 0.56-1.00 1.03 0.88-1.20 1.05 0.85-1.30
Q2 0.96 0.81-1.14 0.86 0.69-1.08 0.82 0.52-1.28 0.73 0.55-0.96 0.69 0.50-0.93 1.06 0.90-1.23 1.03 0.83-1.29
Q1 (low) 0.99 0.85-1.16 0.90 0.74-1.10 0.71 0.46-1.10 0.97 0.76-1.24 0.81 0.61-1.07 1.03 0.89-1.22 1.02 0.83-1.25
The rate of unmet needs of the general hospital Low (ref. high) 1.47 1.34-1.60 1.50 1.35-1.68 1.44 1.14-1.80 1.34 1.17-1.54 1.38 1.18-1.61 1.42 1.31-1.54 1.44 1.29-1.60
Practice rate of brushing after lunch Low (ref. high) 1.07 0.98-1.17 1.01 0.90-1.13 1.10 0.87-1.39 1.18 1.02-1.35 1.06 0.91-1.24 1.03 0.95-1.12 0.94 0.84-1.05
Between household variance 0.07190 (0.02139) 0.1168 (0.03428) - 0.1946 (0.05585) 0.2316 (0.06577) 0.06434 (0.01918) 0.1086 (0.03195)
Between community variance 0.08806 (0.02607) 0.1403 (0.04090) 0.3343 (0.09224) 0.1714 (0.04952) 0.2491 (0.07039) 0.07349 (0.02185) 0.1001 (0.02953)
2 Level percentage change in variation 7.96% -2.91% - 5.35% 7.03% 7.62% -1.27%
3 Level percentage change in variation 37.23% 22.83% 32.80% 20.13% 13.93% 43.03% 25.36%
ICC (household) 0.0214*** 0.0343*** - 0.0559*** 0.0658*** 0.0192*** 0.0319***
ICC (community) 0.0261*** 0.0409*** 0.0922*** 0.0495*** 0.0704*** 0.0218*** 0.0295***

-Unmet needs of dental care service [Availability (a)] for the elderly-aged does not present results because statistical calculations are not possible. Value calculated with all variables under control.

*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<.0001.

J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021;45:126~137 https://doi.org/10.11149/jkaoh.2021.45.3.126
© Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health