JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

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Original Article

Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health 2016; 40(3): 198-205

Published online September 30, 2016 https://doi.org/10.11149/jkaoh.2016.40.3.198

Copyright © Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.

The erosive effect of commercial red ginseng beverages on bovine enamel surfaces

Da-Eun Kim1, Kyung-Hee Kim1, Ae-Ok Kim1, Seong-Soog Jeong1, Choong-Ho Choi1,2, Suk-Jin Hong1,2

1Department of Preventive & Public Health Dentistry, Chonnam National University School of Dentistry, 2Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University School of Dentistry, Gwangju, Korea

Received: September 8, 2016; Revised: September 23, 2016; Accepted: September 24, 2016

Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the influence of several commercial red ginseng beverages on the surface of healthy teeth and to confirm the anti-erosive effect of added calcium. Methods: For the experimental group selection, the pH of red ginseng beverages on the market were measured and the mean pH was calculated. Beverages with the lowest pH (Dong Wha Hongsam Gold; red ginseng beverage group with pH 2.98), mid-level pH (Kwangdong Jin Hongsam Gold; red ginseng beverage group with pH 3.61), and the highest pH (Hongsam Han Ppuri; red ginseng beverage group with pH 5.34) were selected as the experimental groups. In order to confirm the anti-erosive effect of added calcium, we added 1% calcium to the product with the lowest pH (red ginseng beverage group with pH 2.98+1% Ca) and included the product in the experimental group. Jeju Samdasoo and Coca Cola were used as the negative and positive control groups, respectively. We soaked healthy bovine teeth samples in the selected six beverages for 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes. The surface microhardness (VHN, Vickers hardness number) and the surface roughness (center line average roughness, Ra) of each sample were measured, and the surface features were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The change in the surface micro-hardness (△VHN) of teeth after 30 minutes of soaking in each beverage was the highest in the positive control group (60.99±8.99), followed by A (41.63±8.96), B (30.64±8.21), and the negative control group (―4.48±7.29) (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in group C (―18.79±10.11) or D (―16.40±7.89). Surface roughness (Ra) exhibited significant differences between each group (P<0.05). Surface roughness (Ra) was high in A (102.88±26.34) and B (67.76±39.89), as well as in the positive control group (101.21±39.59). In contrast, C (30.80±28.49) and D (25.05±10.79) showed low surface roughness values similar to the negative control group (23.77±22.48). Following SEM examination, severe cracks were observed between the crystals in groups A and B; such characteristics were similar to those of the positive control group. Conclusions: Red ginseng beverages with low pH were shown to erode the surface of the teeth. When calcium was added to the red ginseng beverages, a decrease in tooth erosion was observed. Therefore, the possibility of tooth erosion should be considered when drinking red ginseng beverages. Furthermore, the addition of calcium to red ginseng beverages can be an alternative solution to suppress tooth erosion.

Keywords: Calcium, Dental erosion, Red ginseng beverage