JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health

ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784

Editorial 30 September 2021

Celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Korean Academy of Oral Health

Johng Bai Kim J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 101-104

Original Article 30 September 2021

Factors affecting job satisfaction of dental hygienists related to foreign dental health services

Myeonghwa Park, Sang-Im Lee, Jae-Young Lee et al. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 105-110
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between English communication ability and job satisfaction of dental hygienists involved in the process of providing dental health services to foreigners and to analyze factors related to job satisfaction. Methods: Both online and offline surveys were conducted in parallel to measure English communication competency and job satisfaction. Participants were 195 clinical dental hygienists provided dental health services to foreigners. Spear...
Key Words: Dental health services, Dental hygienist, English communication, Foreign dental patient, Job satisfaction

Original Article 30 September 2021

Oral health literacy and related socioeconomic factors in mothers

Hyun-Jeong Ju, Hyo-Won Oh, Heung-Soo Lee J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 111-118
Objectives: This study aimed to examine oral health literacy (OHL) in mothers and the factors that influence it. Methods: A total of 431 mothers of preschool children were chosen as study participants using the convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study. The survey contents included the socioeconomic characteristics of the participants as well as their level of oral health literacy. Results: In total, 44.8 percent of the participants had a low level of ...
Key Words: Mother, Oral health literacy, Socioecnomic satatus

Original Article 30 September 2021

Structural model on factors influencing career withdrawal intention of dental hygienists

Hyunjin Kim, Hyeongmi Kim, Hyunsook Bae J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 119-125
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the factors that influence career withdrawal intention among dental hygienists. Methods: The subjects of this study were 448 dental hygienists working at dental offices in Daegu, Busan, and Ulsan. The contents of the survey were job fitness, job autonomy, career plateau, job challenge, growth opportunity, career satisfaction, career commitment, and career withdrawal intention. The collected data were analyzed using statistical methods such as frequency an...
Key Words: Career commitment, Career plateau, Growth opportunity, Job autonomy, Turnover intention

Original Article 30 September 2021

A multi-level analysis of factors affecting the unmet needs of dental care service: focusing on comparison by age group

Woo Jong Kim, Yong Jeon Shin J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 126-137
Objectives: The high co-payment of dental care service providers reduces access to dental care and exacerbates health inequality among different social classes. Dental care services are affected by several socioeconomic factors including those related to the household, regional factors surrounding individuals, and individual factors. In this study, we identified household and regional factors that affect unmet dental care needs, after appropriately adjusting for individual-level and provided sug...
Key Words: Community health survey, Dental care utilization, Multilevel analysis, Unmet needs of dental care service

Original Article 30 September 2021

Effect of fermented milk product on composite resin surface

Young-Seon Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Ki-Ho Chung et al. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 138-144
Objectives: The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. Methods: The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beve...
Key Words: Calcium, Composite resin, Fermented milk, Fluoride

Original Article 30 September 2021

Effect of secondhand smoking on gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents in South Korea

Mi Jin Choi, So Yeong Kim, Hye Young Jang J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 145-150
Objectives: This study aimed to identifying the relationship between exposure to secondhand smoking and oral diseases in adolescents, based on the web-based youth health risk behavior survey from 2020. Methods: Among the 54,948 adolescent respondents to the 16th youth health risk behavior survey in 2020, this study included a total of 48,867 non-smoking adolescent participants who had never used regular cigarettes, vapes, or e-cigarettes. Analysis of the complex sample survey data was performed ...
Key Words: Adolescents, Gingival bleeding, Gingival pain, Secondhand smoking

Original Article 30 September 2021

3D motion analysis of cervical spine joints of dental hygiene students and dental hygienists during scaling operation

Ka-Yeon Lee, Ji-Hee Kim J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 151-155
Objectives: This study aimed to objectively evaluate factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by measuring the range of motion of the cervical spine. Using three-dimensional motion analysis, the degree of flexion, lateral flexion and rotation were compared between dental hygiene students and dental hygienists during dental scaling. Methods: Muscle activity in the range of motion of the cervical vertebrae was measured in 35 dental hygiene students and 15 dental hygienists while scaling. ...
Key Words: 3D motion analysis, Cervical spine joints, Dental hygienist, Musculoskeletal disorder

Original Article 30 September 2021

Influences of organizational commitment, positive psycological capital on job embeddedness of clinical dental hygienists

Hee Hong Min J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 156-160
Objectives: This study aims to determine the degree of organizational commitment, positive psychological capital, and job embeddedness among clinical dental hygienists, as well as the factors that affect their job embeddedness. The goal then is to optimize the data to develop programs that will keep the hygienists from quitting their occupations. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was filled out by 190 clinical dental hygienists from Feb 1 to April 30, 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26....
Key Words: Dental hygienist, Job embeddedness, Organizational commitment, Positive psychological capital

Original Article 30 September 2021

Preliminary experiments on proposals for the spread of droplets due to tooth brushing in schools

Ji-Young Son, Hyung-Rok Do, Seong-Ik Cha et al. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 161-165
Objectives: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a major public health problem around the world. There is a high demand for health promotion programs that allow schools and local children’s centers to brush their teeth and wash their hands compared to others after lunch; and furthermore, the demand for schools with brushing facilities is twice that of schools without brushing facilities. However, students are returning home without brushing their teeth after lunch at kindergarten...
Key Words: Spread of droplets, Tooth brushing, Tooth brushing in school, Tooth brushing instruction

Original Article 30 September 2021

A study on the Korean dental education system II: the need for integrated education system

Yoon Min Gil, Jihyun Lee, Ho-Beom Kwon et al. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2021; 45: 166-174
Objectives: With the rapid changes in society, there are more arguments for redefining dental education system. This study aimed to review and analyze the problems in the current dental education system in Korea and then propose an integrated education system based on those findings. Methods: A narrative review of the problems confronting the dental education system in Korea was carried out. Accordingly, full-text screening and specialists’ discussions were extracted from the review. The p...
Key Words: Curriculum, Dental education, Education system

September 30, 2021Current Issue Vol. 45 No. 3

    September, 2021 | Volume 45, No. 3
  • Editorial 2021-09-30

  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Factors affecting job satisfaction of dental hygienists related to foreign dental health services

    Myeonghwa Park , Sang-Im Lee , Jae-Young Lee et al.

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between English communication ability and job satisfaction of dental hygienists involved in the process of providing dental health services to foreigners and to analyze factors related to job satisfaction. Methods: Both online and offline surveys were conducted in parallel to measure English communication competency and job satisfaction. Participants were 195 clinical dental hygienists provided dental health services to foreigners. Spearman’s rho analysis was performed on the correlation between English communication ability, and job satisfaction, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on the factors related to the job satisfaction of the dental hygienist. Results: The job satisfaction of dental hygienists was 2.99 point out of 5 points. There was a strong positive relationship between English communication ability and english communication frequency (r=0.682), and the higher the English communication ability, the higher the job satisfaction (r=0.357). Factors affecting job satisfaction were English communication ability (β=0.378, P

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Oral health literacy and related socioeconomic factors in mothers

    Hyun-Jeong Ju , Hyo-Won Oh , Heung-Soo Lee

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to examine oral health literacy (OHL) in mothers and the factors that influence it. Methods: A total of 431 mothers of preschool children were chosen as study participants using the convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study. The survey contents included the socioeconomic characteristics of the participants as well as their level of oral health literacy. Results: In total, 44.8 percent of the participants had a low level of verbal oral health literacy (0-6 grade), and 16.9 percent had a low functional oral health literacy (≤6). Educational level and family income were significantly associated with the participants’ oral health literacy (Pearson correlation). Verbal oral health literacy of the participants was related to their family’s income, whereas their functional oral health literacy was related to their educational level. Conclusions: Many of the participants had a low level of oral health literacy. For mothers, to improve their oral health literacy, an oral health literacy program must be in place. Oral health literacy programs should be targeted toward mothers with low socioeconomic status.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Structural model on factors influencing career withdrawal intention of dental hygienists

    Hyunjin Kim , Hyeongmi Kim , Hyunsook Bae

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identify the factors that influence career withdrawal intention among dental hygienists. Methods: The subjects of this study were 448 dental hygienists working at dental offices in Daegu, Busan, and Ulsan. The contents of the survey were job fitness, job autonomy, career plateau, job challenge, growth opportunity, career satisfaction, career commitment, and career withdrawal intention. The collected data were analyzed using statistical methods such as frequency analysis, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, structural model analysis, and bootstrapping using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 21.0. Results: The groups with low career withdrawal intention were those who were over 30 years old, married, had a master’s degree or higher, and had more than 8 years of clinical experience. The group with low career withdrawal intention generally showed high job autonomy. It was found that job autonomy, growth opportunity, and career plateau indirectly affected career withdrawal intention by mediating career satisfaction and career commitment. The higher the job autonomy and growth opportunity, the lower the career withdrawal intention, and the higher the career plateau, the higher the career withdrawal intention. The factor that had a direct effect on career withdrawal intention was career commitment; the higher the career commitment, the lower the career withdrawal intention. Conclusions: To reduce dental hygienists’ career withdrawal intention, we propose expanding their job autonomy within the legal scope, developing a career development model, and finding ways to improve their career commitment.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    A multi-level analysis of factors affecting the unmet needs of dental care service: focusing on comparison by age group

    Woo Jong Kim , Yong Jeon Shin

    Abstract : Objectives: The high co-payment of dental care service providers reduces access to dental care and exacerbates health inequality among different social classes. Dental care services are affected by several socioeconomic factors including those related to the household, regional factors surrounding individuals, and individual factors. In this study, we identified household and regional factors that affect unmet dental care needs, after appropriately adjusting for individual-level and provided suggestions for improving the future coverage of dental and oral health care services. Methods: Using the 2019 Korean Community Health Survey data, 101,718 middle-aged (40-64 years old) and 72,807 elderly (65 years and older) individuals were analyzed to identify the unmet needs of dental care services by age group. To identify factors affecting unmet dental care needs by age group, a multilevel analysis of the overall rate (T1) was conducted with three dependent variables: (a)availability, (b)economic accessibility, and (c) acceptability. Results: The unmet need for dental care service rate (T1) was 15.43% for middle-aged individuals, 14.73% overall, and 13.00% for the elderly. The results of the multi-level analysis indicated that at the household level, the number of household members aged 19 years and above had an effect on the overall (T1) total unmet needs of dental care services and economic accessibility for the middleaged group. At the regional level, economic accessibility influenced the degree of financial independence and the number of dental hospitals and clinics per population. Conclusions: In order to reduce the unmet needs of dental care services, it is necessary to comprehensively consider not only individual-level factors but also household-level factors and regionallevel factors according to age.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Effect of fermented milk product on composite resin surface

    Young-Seon Kim , Ji-Eun Kim , Ki-Ho Chung et al.

    Abstract : Objectives: The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. Methods: The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). Conclusions: The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Effect of secondhand smoking on gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents in South Korea

    Mi Jin Choi , So Yeong Kim , Hye Young Jang

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to identifying the relationship between exposure to secondhand smoking and oral diseases in adolescents, based on the web-based youth health risk behavior survey from 2020. Methods: Among the 54,948 adolescent respondents to the 16th youth health risk behavior survey in 2020, this study included a total of 48,867 non-smoking adolescent participants who had never used regular cigarettes, vapes, or e-cigarettes. Analysis of the complex sample survey data was performed by applying weights according to the complex sample provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Cross-tabulation analysis by complex sampling using the Rao- Scott chi-square test and complex-sample t-test was then performed to identify the relationship between subject characteristics and gingival pain and bleeding prevalence. Finally, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of secondhand smoking on symptoms of gingival pain and bleeding in non-smoking adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 version, and the statistical significance level was defined as P

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    3D motion analysis of cervical spine joints of dental hygiene students and dental hygienists during scaling operation

    Ka-Yeon Lee , Ji-Hee Kim

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to objectively evaluate factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by measuring the range of motion of the cervical spine. Using three-dimensional motion analysis, the degree of flexion, lateral flexion and rotation were compared between dental hygiene students and dental hygienists during dental scaling. Methods: Muscle activity in the range of motion of the cervical vertebrae was measured in 35 dental hygiene students and 15 dental hygienists while scaling. Data were collected and processed using the biofeedback exercise function of the 2EM (4D-MT, Relive, Gimhae, Korea), an electromyography measuring device. A three-dimensional motion analysis sensor was attached to the subject’s right external auditory canal, and the joint angle was measured at 20 Hz. Results: Cervical flexion (15°-45°) was measured higher in dental hygienists than in students. Cervical flexion within 15° of the normal range was higher in students than in dental hygienists. For cervical lateral flexion of 15°-45° and >45°, dental hygienists measured higher than students. In contrast, cervical lateral flexion within 15° of the normal range was higher among students than dental hygienists. Cervical rotation (15°-45°) was measured higher in dental hygienists than in students. No dental hygienist’s cervical rotation measured over 45°, and more students reached the 45° measurement than dental hygienists. Conclusions: Flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation were measured higher in dental hygienists then dental hygiene students. The results indicated that the range of motion of the cervical spine in the two groups exceeded the average scores for normal flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation by more than 15°, thereby increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Influences of organizational commitment, positive psycological capital on job embeddedness of clinical dental hygienists

    Hee Hong Min

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aims to determine the degree of organizational commitment, positive psychological capital, and job embeddedness among clinical dental hygienists, as well as the factors that affect their job embeddedness. The goal then is to optimize the data to develop programs that will keep the hygienists from quitting their occupations. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was filled out by 190 clinical dental hygienists from Feb 1 to April 30, 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0. Results: Dental hygienists scored 3.30 points on job embeddedness. These factors accounted for 68.6% of the variance in dental clinic hygienists. The variables influencing job embeddedness were Position_dummy (general hygienist/senior hygienist) and organizational commitment. These factors had a variance of 68.6% among clinical dental hygienists. Conclusions: Job embeddedness of clinic dental hygienists is related to organizational commitment and positive psychological capital, and job embeddedness turned out to be the biggest effect factor. Therefore, developing programs and institutional support mechanisms for clinical dental hygienists is important to enhance their positive psychological capital and organizational commitment.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    Preliminary experiments on proposals for the spread of droplets due to tooth brushing in schools

    Ji-Young Son , Hyung-Rok Do, Seong-Ik Cha et al.

    Abstract : Objectives: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a major public health problem around the world. There is a high demand for health promotion programs that allow schools and local children’s centers to brush their teeth and wash their hands compared to others after lunch; and furthermore, the demand for schools with brushing facilities is twice that of schools without brushing facilities. However, students are returning home without brushing their teeth after lunch at kindergartens and schools, where face-to-face classes are conducted. This situation can be further understood by examining the education office’s official letter that considers the risk of “droplet infection” at kindergartens and schools. Thus, this pilot study is interested in identifying the relationship between brushing teeth and the spread of droplets, and proposing proper brushing guidelines for students in schools. Methods: The droplet diffusion test was conducted in three ways: during conversation, when brushing teeth, and when brushing teeth with the mouth closed. A Mie Scattering technique using a continuous wave (CW) laser was performed to observe and compare the distribution of droplets ejected from the oral cavity in this experiment. Results: As a result, it was confirmed that the droplets that spread, while brushing the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior region, were significantly reduced when brushing the teeth with the mouth closed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, personal hygiene education such as the school group tooth brushing project and hand washing should be continuously conducted and monitored by installing transparent partitions, and the tooth brushing technique to prevent the spread of droplets in schools.

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  • Original Article 2021-09-30

    A study on the Korean dental education system II: the need for integrated education system

    Yoon Min Gil , Jihyun Lee , Ho-Beom Kwon et al.

    Abstract : Objectives: With the rapid changes in society, there are more arguments for redefining dental education system. This study aimed to review and analyze the problems in the current dental education system in Korea and then propose an integrated education system based on those findings. Methods: A narrative review of the problems confronting the dental education system in Korea was carried out. Accordingly, full-text screening and specialists’ discussions were extracted from the review. The purpose of the review was to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of Korean dental education systems to offer perspectives on an integrated education system in accordance with the specialists’ opinions. Results: The results revealed that the problems of the current dental education system were identified in clinical education, basic science, and humanities and social sciences. Dental schools should provide clinical education so that dental students can be exposed to the clinical environment at an early stage and perform patient-based clinical practice. It is also imperative to encourage participation in research programs to train dental scientists, as well as to reflect on courses that can adapt to changes brought about by new technologies. It is recommended that education opportunities for integrated humanities and social sciences be provided. Conclusions: It will be critical in the future for dental schools to embrace a flexible education system from various perspectives. It is vital that dental schools play a role in developing students’ critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Finally, as part of an integrated education system, an improvement program should be devised.

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Vol.45 No.3

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JKAOH Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
ISSN(Print) 1225-388X ISSN(Online) 2093-7784